Algorithms and abstract automata (abstract machines) are used to describe, model, explore and improve computers, cell phones, computer networks, such as the Internet, and processes in them. Traditional models of information processing systems—abstract automata—are aimed at performing transformations of data. These transformations are performed by their hardware (abstract devices) and controlled by their software (programs)—both of which stay unchanged during the whole computational process. However, in physical computers, their software is also changing by special tools such as interpreters, compilers, optimizers and translators. In addition, people change the hardware of their computers by extending the external memory. Moreover, the hardware of computer networks is incessantly altering—new computers and other devices are added while other computers and other devices are disconnected. To better represent these peculiarities of computers and computer networks, we introduce and study a more complete model of computations, which is called a triadic automaton or machine. In contrast to traditional models of computations, triadic automata (machine) perform computational processes transforming not only data but also hardware and programs, which control data transformation. In addition, we further develop taxonomy of classes of automata and machines as well as of individual automata and machines according to information they produce.
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