“Why Drones for Ordinary People?” Digital Representations, Topic Clusters, and Techno-Nationalization of Drones on Zhihu
2.1. Drones and the Chinese Digital Economy
2.2. Drones and State Authorities
2.3. Drones and Activism
3. Conceptual Framework
3.1. Beyond Being a Tool for Civic Engagement: Drones and Their Digital Representations
3.2. Techno-Nationalization of the Chinese Internet
4. Research Design
4.1. Research Question
4.2. Pre-Exploration of Zhihu Platform Characteristics
4.3. Data Collection and Methods
5.1. Exploring Topic Clusters Around Drone by SNA
- DJI Dajiang Innovation is connected to, e.g., work experience, Israel Army, Chengdu, aerial photography, aviation model, aviation safety, tik tok;
- Aerial photography is connected to, e.g., selfie, documentary, photo, photography, DJI Mavic 2, travel, outdoor sports, aviation model;
- Robot is connected to, e.g., electronic engineering, automation, artificial intelligence, quadcopter, experiment, flight control, remote control
- Tech is connected to, e.g., Internet, overseas, resident life, privacy.
5.2. Identifying Drone Representations by Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)
5.2.1. What Qualifies a Drone?
“During the summer holiday, I traveled with my girlfriend to Xiamen. It feels so happy to see the world from a different perspective with a loved person. (a video inserted here) […]”(qID 13)
“She is stunningly beautiful; I want a girlfriend like her”(qID 13)
“[…] a qualified multi-rotor aircraft must similarly obtain the intelligent navigation system consisting of inertial measurement components, GPS, visual odometer, obstacle avoidance system, barometer and ultrasonic sensors to be called an unmanned aerial vehicle. A multi-rotor aircraft is not a toy. […]”(qID 4)
“The reason why I don’t like to call these things UAV is that I think one necessary qualification of UAVs is the anti-interference capacity. Ordinary quadrotors use 2.4 G for communication, which is so easy to fall prey to interference.”(qID20)
“For ordinary people, a low-end consumer drone is only possible as a toy. If one wants to prove that a drone is not a toy, then what else can a person do with a cheap drone other than using it for entertainment? I recognize that a high-quality drone can make contributions in the fields of aerial photography, agriculture, plant reservation, express delivery, disaster rescue […], and can be legitimately called an ‘instrument.’ But are Xiaomi and DJI low-end drones really qualified to be called ‘instrument’?”(qID 4)
5.2.2. Drones as Uneasy Flying Objects
“Not sure whether it’s allowed to fly in Gulangyu now. Fellows here, you’d better learn the government regulations first before deciding whether or not you want to travel with your planes”(qID 13)
“Very simple. First you can hang a warning on the window, say for example ‘You have entered my aerial territory; if you don’t leave within xx minutes, I will take necessary reactions.’ Blah, blah, blah. Then, if this quadrotor (I really don’t like to call these things drones) still doesn’t leave, some special measures can be taken. […]” (the author uses the next paragraph to offer instructions on how to attack a drone with 2.4 G signals)(qID 30)
5.2.3. A Successful Business, or Rather Not?
“During the first world war, we didn’t catch the opportunity to become arsenal dealers. During the second world war, we became the waste treatment factories of arsenal dealers. All arsenal dealers took the greatest pride in selling weapons to both sides of the war. Now, regardless of ISIS or middle east tycoons, Lighthouse [US, A/N] marine corps or Mujahid in black ropes; they all use DJI. There are no more comments necessary for this. The China dream is realized”(qID 43)
“Actually there are many companies working in this field, for example, AR. DRONE from Parrot, Phantom from DJI (which is created in China!)”(qID 29)
“Rumor has it that DJI Innovation Tech has an arbitrary administration and the overtime workload is a serious issue. Don’t know whether it is true or false.”(qID 23)
“I’ve always thought of working for DJI as an honor. What we are doing is cultivating and leading a brand-new field of digital consumer goods. The innovativeness of Phantom in light of smart flight is similar to iPhone in smart phones. No other Chinese companies could create history like us, and merely that makes me proud from deep inside my heart.”(qID 23)
“This flexible work and rest system were developed by countless overtime dogs (including me) […] I am doing the technical work I like, it is as important for me as breathing and eating. […] DJI has never forced anyone to work overtime, and it is not required to get a good job evaluation. But people who work in technology know that products cannot be innovated within the old nine-to-five logic. Who can make a breakthrough technology by working nine-to-five? If you want to be better than others, you have to work throughout the night, and you forget about everything around you.”(qID 23)
“Now DJI has developed into such a large scale, but still treats itself as a startup. This is clearly milking its employees, especially the young employees.”(qID 23)
“Just shared it with my classmates and found that many answers were deleted… Dajiang’s public relations is amazing…”
“DJI deleted a lot of answers.”
“With so many anonymous and deleted answers, the answer to this question is already coming out.”(all quotes from qID 23)
- As an object of consumption and technological advancement
- As an object of uncertainty
- As an object of national future.
Conflicts of Interest
|1||https://www.zhihu.com/question/46540988/answer/102709473||As a user, what expectations do you have of Xiaomi drones?|
|2||https://www.zhihu.com/question/277858902/answer/406016959||How to view the incident where the son of an engineer from Mercedes Benz bruised a small child while playing with a drone, and the father of the responsible party claims to be unable to compensate.|
|3||https://www.zhihu.com/question/50964912/answer/123992298||How to evaluate Mavic, a new product released by Dajiang Innovation?|
|4||https://www.zhihu.com/question/46752693/answer/103624548||How big is the gap between Xiaomi Drones and DJI Drones?|
|5||https://www.zhihu.com/question/52237122/answer/191751196||What kinds of things can you imagine that drones can do?|
|6||https://www.zhihu.com/question/38274006/answer/77993903||Why drones for ordinary people?|
|7||https://www.zhihu.com/question/27039505/answer/39691301||What are the new ways to play with the drone now?|
|8||https://www.zhihu.com/question/33279324/answer/56191019||Why is there no drone self-destructive attack weapon? Have the terrorists used it?|
|9||https://www.zhihu.com/question/281760029/answer/423098332||How to evaluate JD. com’s plan to start the project of building an ultra-heavy drone with a weight of 40–60 tons and a flight range of over 6000 km?|
|10||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/35405080||How did you shoot the Tik-Tok viral videos of flying high by mobile phone?|
|11||https://www.zhihu.com/question/309494263/answer/576790057||How do you view the DJI Dajiang internal anti-corruption initiative that caused the loss of 1 billion Yuan and 16 people were handed over to the judicial treatment?|
|12||https://www.zhihu.com/question/58685856/answer/161852090||How to view the incident on 17th and 18th April where drones caused the forced landing of civil aviation in Chengdu?|
|13||https://www.zhihu.com/question/52276436/answer/535363298||What kind of new experiences is it to take selfies by a drone?|
|14||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/36749515||Why I wouldn’t buy DJI drones again?|
|15||https://www.zhihu.com/question/48473315/answer/111489820||Wishing to buy a drone and use it when traveling outdoors, what options do I have?|
|16||https://www.zhihu.com/question/63464857/answer/499357224||How do you view the ban on DJI drones by US Military?|
|17||https://www.zhihu.com/question/267112932/answer/515469926||Why have quadcopters become popular, and helicopters not?|
|18||https://www.zhihu.com/question/263726501/answer/272395138||What’s your opinion on the Indian drone that invaded China’s airspace and crashed on 7 December?|
|19||https://www.zhihu.com/question/52237274/answer/130230580||What do new drone startup companies need to pay attention to when they want to make products like those of DJI?|
|20||https://www.zhihu.com/question/264651961/answer/284223719||How to perceive the practices of SF Groups to start using large drones for express delivery?|
|21||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/21616026||What is the killing power of drone rotors?|
|22||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/34763973||It only takes one after-sales service to make you transform from a DJI fan to an anti-fan.|
|23||https://www.zhihu.com/question/24453944/answer/151209621||What are the experiences of working at DJI?|
|24||https://www.zhihu.com/question/268059844/answer/336556440||Is the rumor that Israel has purchased tens of thousands of DJI’s UAVs true? What’s your opinions on this?|
|25||https://www.zhihu.com/question/27968317/answer/40938920||Why are there so many quadcopter fans in the country attacking DJI?|
|26||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/26663850||Strange unlicensed drone “black flights” near Chengdu Shuangliu Airport inspire many conspiracy theories.|
|27||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/34599500||When will DJI be restricted to export? How does a flying camera transform into a flying grenade?|
|28||https://www.zhihu.com/question/61222947/answer/214464192||What’s your opinion on DJI passively being labeled as a military company?|
|29||https://www.zhihu.com/question/23676158/answer/26514753||What is the current market status of small civil drones and their future prospects?|
|30||https://www.zhihu.com/question/30493677/answer/83639547||A drone is always flying around in front of my window; how to deal with it?|
|31||https://www.zhihu.com/question/52237227/answer/130450498||Where does one need to pay attention to while traveling with a drone for aerial photography?|
|32||https://www.zhihu.com/question/52237086/answer/129815145||Is drone operation difficult?|
|33||https://www.zhihu.com/question/275543118/answer/381574288||What was the cause of the mistakes in the 1374 UAV show performances in Xi’an on 1 May 2018?|
|34||https://www.zhihu.com/question/38245247/answer/171462696||What beautiful pictures or videos have you taken by aerial photography?|
|35||https://www.zhihu.com/question/23517562/answer/27359260||What is the value of the class Signals and Systems?|
|36||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/32469751||2017 Best Drone Photos|
|37||https://www.zhihu.com/question/67909369/answer/261269277||What interesting things have you encountered by aerial photography?|
|38||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/26591612||Under the great reward of Dajiang, there must be some conspiracy.|
|39||https://www.zhihu.com/question/275869496/answer/393552974||It is said that unlicensed drone ’black flight’ alarmed the Air Force fighters and 4 people were arrested. What’s your opinion on this?|
|40||https://www.zhihu.com/question/57835306/answer/174110295||How to evaluate DJI’s small drone model Spark?|
|41||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/48045984||Northeastern Tigers jointly attacking drones|
|42||https://www.zhihu.com/question/27345010/answer/88840753||What technical problems exist with using drones for express delivery?|
|43||https://www.zhihu.com/question/51126425/answer/124243444||Is DJI famous abroad? How do foreigners evaluate it?|
|44||https://www.zhihu.com/question/28076833/answer/39311347||Why have drones become so popular?|
|45||https://www.zhihu.com/question/40927288/answer/89323103||How to evaluate DJI’s drone model Phantom 4?|
|46||https://www.zhihu.com/question/278057281/answer/397826100||How do you view that a student of China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) has navigated a drone to hover around the girls’ dormitory? Does this infringe on the privacy of others?|
|47||https://www.zhihu.com/question/268998829/answer/352011397||How to evaluate the variety show “Superpower Science”?|
|48||https://www.zhihu.com/question/27904916/answer/39093164||How is the modern advanced control theory advanced? How do you view the situation where the advanced control system is actually not that stable even though the PID controller has almost 90% share?|
|49||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/27248355||Half insect, half machine, live dragonfly-drone successfully tested, opening the “Cyborg” semi-mechanized biological era.|
|50||https://www.zhihu.com/question/23971601/answer/26254459||How to explain the Kalman filter as much as possible and as detailed as possible?|
|51||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/39606571||The hacker sold the U.S. military drone design files for $200 on the dark web.|
|52||https://www.zhihu.com/question/51740470/answer/127847340||What advantages does DJI have in its victory over 3D Robotics?|
|53||https://www.zhihu.com/question/21584809/answer/18711695||How do you view SF Express’s drone delivery service that is being internally tested?|
|54||https://www.zhihu.com/question/33320226/answer/56316028||Hoping to build a robot myself, what professional knowledge should I know?|
|55||https://www.zhihu.com/question/59913410/answer/170526318||How do you view the Civil Aviation Bureau’s implementation of the real-name registration system for civil drones since 1 June?|
|56||https://www.zhihu.com/question/291486522/answer/476352652||How to evaluate DJI Mavic 2 Pro and Mavic 2 Zoom?|
|57||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/36861535||The foreign brother bet he can let IKEA’s chair go to heaven! Can it fly? After a few hours.|
|58||https://www.zhihu.com/question/26527249/answer/33940148||What exactly is DJI Inspire?|
|59||https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/38321661||Beijing brother summoned the machine dragon in Japan and won the ICRA 2018 best drone paper|
|60||https://www.zhihu.com/question/59765611/answer/168971569||What’s your opinion on the drone interference that Chongqing Airport encountered once again on the night of 12 May 2017?|
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Hamm, A.; Lin, Z. “Why Drones for Ordinary People?” Digital Representations, Topic Clusters, and Techno-Nationalization of Drones on Zhihu. Information 2019, 10, 256. https://doi.org/10.3390/info10080256
Hamm A, Lin Z. “Why Drones for Ordinary People?” Digital Representations, Topic Clusters, and Techno-Nationalization of Drones on Zhihu. Information. 2019; 10(8):256. https://doi.org/10.3390/info10080256Chicago/Turabian Style
Hamm, Andrea, and Zihao Lin. 2019. "“Why Drones for Ordinary People?” Digital Representations, Topic Clusters, and Techno-Nationalization of Drones on Zhihu" Information 10, no. 8: 256. https://doi.org/10.3390/info10080256