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Open AccessConcept Paper
Challenges 2019, 10(1), 10;

The Effects of Chlorinated Drinking Water on the Assembly of the Intestinal Microbiome

Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
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This concept paper discusses the potential impact of chlorinated public drinking water on the assembly of the intestinal microbiome in infancy. The addition of chlorine or hypochlorite to metropolitan drinking water is routinely used worldwide as a sanitizer because of its potent anti-microbial properties. It is one of the most effective means of delivering safe drinkable water because it produces a residual disinfectant that persists within the distribution system. Levels of chlorine used to treat metropolitan water are considered safe for the individual, based on toxicity studies. However, to our knowledge there have been no studies examining whether levels of persistent chlorine exposure from tap water are also safe for the ecosystem of microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Given the importance of the microbiome in health, persistent exposure to low levels of chlorine may be a hitherto unrecognized risk factor for gut dysbiosis, which has now been linked to virtually every chronic non-communicable disease of the modern era. Although effects may be subtle, young children and infants are more susceptible to ecological disturbance, given that the microbiome is highly influenced by environmental factors during this period. Here I outline considerations for the safety of water disinfectants not just in terms of toxicity to the host, but also for the ecosystem of microorganisms that inhabit us. Research in this is likely to bear fruitful information that could either bring attention to this issue, potentially driving new innovations in public water management; or could help confirm the safety profile of chlorine levels in public drinking water. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial ecosystems; microbial diversity; water quality; chlorine; metagenomics microbial ecosystems; microbial diversity; water quality; chlorine; metagenomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Martino, D. The Effects of Chlorinated Drinking Water on the Assembly of the Intestinal Microbiome. Challenges 2019, 10, 10.

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