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Studying Religiosity and Spirituality: A Review of Macro, Micro, and Meso-Level Approaches
Article

Religiosity and Generosity: Multi-Level Approaches to Studying the Religiousness of Prosocial Actions

1
Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy, IUPUI, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
2
Wits Business School, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Religions 2020, 11(9), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11090446
Received: 1 July 2020 / Revised: 6 August 2020 / Accepted: 20 August 2020 / Published: 31 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Understandings of Religiosity and Generosity)
This paper provides a meta-analysis of the intersection of (a) religiosity and spirituality with (b) generosity, philanthropy, nonprofits, and prosociality. The study is informed by three informational sources, chronologically: (1) informational interviews with scholars and practitioners based within and studying regions outside of the U.S. and Western Europe; (2) discovery search of purposefully selected extant publications, especially focusing on the last decade of contemporary scholarship; and (3) systematic search of relevant peer-reviewed publication outlets since 2010. Reviewed publications are categorized by level of analysis into macro, meso, and micro approaches. Across each level and source, publications are also geo-tagged for their geographic scope. Particular attention is paid to the under-studied world regions of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. The results reveal that Asia is the most studied and Latin America the least studied, and that meso-level approaches are the most common while micro-level are the least common. Additionally, a map of publication counts reveals within-region inequalities by country. Implications of the analysis are drawn for future studies, particularly ways to advance this interdisciplinary field. View Full-Text
Keywords: religiosity; spirituality; generosity; philanthropy; nonprofits; NGOs; Africa; Asia; Latin America; Middle East religiosity; spirituality; generosity; philanthropy; nonprofits; NGOs; Africa; Asia; Latin America; Middle East
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MDPI and ACS Style

Herzog, P.S.; Strohmeier, A.; King, D.P.; Khader, R.A.; Williams, A.L.; Goodwin, J.L.; Doan, D.R.H.; Moyo, B. Religiosity and Generosity: Multi-Level Approaches to Studying the Religiousness of Prosocial Actions. Religions 2020, 11, 446. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11090446

AMA Style

Herzog PS, Strohmeier A, King DP, Khader RA, Williams AL, Goodwin JL, Doan DRH, Moyo B. Religiosity and Generosity: Multi-Level Approaches to Studying the Religiousness of Prosocial Actions. Religions. 2020; 11(9):446. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11090446

Chicago/Turabian Style

Herzog, Patricia S., Amy Strohmeier, David P. King, Rafia A. Khader, Andrew L. Williams, Jamie L. Goodwin, Dana R.H. Doan, and Bhekinkosi Moyo. 2020. "Religiosity and Generosity: Multi-Level Approaches to Studying the Religiousness of Prosocial Actions" Religions 11, no. 9: 446. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11090446

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