Next Article in Journal
Gender and Space during Guatemala’s Holy Week: An Ethnographic Account
Next Article in Special Issue
The Relationship between Authority and Authenticity in the Laozi: Employing Wu無as a Philosophical Framework
Previous Article in Journal
Philistine Cult and Religion According to Archaeological Evidence
Previous Article in Special Issue
Conceptualizing the Interaction of Buddhism and Daoism in the Tang Dynasty: Inner Cultivation and Outer Authority in the Daode Jing Commentaries of Cheng Xuanying and Li Rong
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Religions 2019, 10(2), 75;

The Dreamer and Their Authenticity in the Zhuangzi

Department of Philosophy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [559 KB, uploaded 3 February 2019]   |  


In this paper, I explain the problem of the dreamer in the Zhuangzi. I aim to show that no difference exists between dreaming states and waking states because we have a fluctual relationship with these two stages. In both, “we are dreaming.” Put another way, from a psychoanalytical point of view, one stage penetrates the other and vice versa. The difference between dreaming and non-dreaming disappears because dreaming is a structural process. Also, from a psychoanalytical perspective, all confirmations and negations about dreams and non-dreams leads to one point: the being, or rather the becoming, of the subject. How does this solve the problem of the True Person/True Human Being (zhenren真人)? Does such a person have dreams or not? Does the True Person sleep without dreams, as we find in the Zhuangzi? From a psychoanalytic perspective, this is not possible. To prove this, I will present few passages from the Zhuangzi and offer a psychoanalytic explanation of them based on Jacques Lacan’s theory of the fantasy and desire. View Full-Text
Keywords: dream; Zhuangzi; Jacques Lacan; fantasy; desire; True Person; psychoanalysis; being dream; Zhuangzi; Jacques Lacan; fantasy; desire; True Person; psychoanalysis; being

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bonar, B.A. The Dreamer and Their Authenticity in the Zhuangzi. Religions 2019, 10, 75.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Religions EISSN 2077-1444 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert Logo copyright Steve Bridenbaugh/UUA
Back to Top