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Article

Environmental Risk Assessment of Petroleum Activities in Surface Sediments, Suez Gulf, Egypt

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Environmental Geology, Surveying of Natural Resources in Environmental Systems Department, Environmental Studies and Research Institute, University of Sadat City, Minufiya 32897, Egypt
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Hydrogeology, Evaluation of Natural Resources Department, Environmental Studies and Research Institute, University of Sadat City, Minufiya 32897, Egypt
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Biology Department, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61321, Saudi Arabia
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Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt
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Biology Department, College of Science and Humanities, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11940, Saudi Arabia
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Arid Land Agriculture Department, College of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Biology Department, College of Science, University of Ha’il, Ha’il 55476, Saudi Arabia
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Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Harshinie Karunarathna and János Kovács
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050473
Received: 1 April 2021 / Revised: 19 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 27 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Geological Oceanography)
The present study focuses on the risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in aquatic ecosystems by evaluating the current situation of heavy metals in seven locations (North Amer El Bahry, Amer, Bakr, Ras Gharib, July Water Floud, Ras Shokeir, and El Marageen) along the Suez Gulf coast that are well-known representative sites for petroleum activities in Egypt. One hundred and forty-six samples of surface sediments were carefully collected from twenty-seven profiles in the intertidal and surf zone. The hydrochemical parameters, such as pH and salinity (S‰), were measured during sample collection. The mineralogy study was carried out by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and the concentrations of Al, Mn, Fe, Cr, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, and Pb were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectra (ICP-MS). The ecological risks of heavy metals were assessed by applying the contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution load index (PLI), and potential ecological risk index (RI). The mineralogical composition mainly comprised quartz, dolomites, calcite, and feldspars. The average concentrations of the detected heavy metals, in descending order, were Al > Fe > Mn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Zn > Ni > Co > Cd. A non-significant or negative relationship between the heavy metal concentration in the samples and their textural grain size characteristics was observed. The coastal surface sediment samples of the Suez Gulf contained lower concentrations of heavy metals than those published for other regions in the world with petroleum activities, except for Al, Mn, and Cr. The results for the CF, EF, and Igeo showed that Cd and Pb have severe enrichment in surface sediment and are derived from anthropogenic sources, while Al, Mn, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn originate from natural sources. By comparison, the PLI and RI results indicate that the North Amer El Bahry and July Water Floud are considered polluted areas due to their petroleum activities. The continuous monitoring and assessment of pollutants in the Suez Gulf will aid in the protection of the environment and the sustainability of resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: contamination factor; enrichment factor; geoaccumulation index; pollution load index; potential ecological risk index; heavy metals; Egypt contamination factor; enrichment factor; geoaccumulation index; pollution load index; potential ecological risk index; heavy metals; Egypt
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abou El-Safa, M.M.; Gad, M.; Eid, E.M.; Alnemari, A.M.; Almarshadi, M.H.; Alshammari, A.S.; Moghanm, F.S.; Saleh, A.H. Environmental Risk Assessment of Petroleum Activities in Surface Sediments, Suez Gulf, Egypt. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 473. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050473

AMA Style

Abou El-Safa MM, Gad M, Eid EM, Alnemari AM, Almarshadi MH, Alshammari AS, Moghanm FS, Saleh AH. Environmental Risk Assessment of Petroleum Activities in Surface Sediments, Suez Gulf, Egypt. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(5):473. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050473

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abou El-Safa, Magda M., Mohamed Gad, Ebrahem M. Eid, Ashwaq M. Alnemari, Mohammed H. Almarshadi, Abdullah S. Alshammari, Farahat S. Moghanm, and Ali H. Saleh. 2021. "Environmental Risk Assessment of Petroleum Activities in Surface Sediments, Suez Gulf, Egypt" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 5: 473. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050473

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