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Article

Effect of Horizontal Multidirectional Cyclic Loading on Piles in Sand: A Numerical Analysis

Grenoble Alpes University, CNRS, Grenoble INP, 3SR, 38000 Grenoble, France
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Academic Editor: Luke J. Prendergast
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020235
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 14 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 23 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Wind Soil–Structure Interaction (SSI))
Foundations of offshore and nearshore wind energy production systems are subjected to multidirectional and cyclic loads, due to the combined action of wind and waves and in the particular case of mutualized anchor foundations for floating wind turbines, to the phase shift between the loads generated in the adjacent anchored turbines. This article presents a three-dimensional numerical model developed with FLAC3D to analyse the impact of the change in direction of the horizontal load during the cycles. The typical case of a 1.7 m diameter and 10 m-long pile founded in a dense homogeneous sand is considered. A specific procedure has been implemented to apply force-controlled cycles with a change in lateral load direction. The results are compared to mono-directional lateral cyclic loads with the same average and cyclic forces. The results of the parametric study highlight the effect of the average value and amplitude of the cyclic loading on the accumulation of pile head horizontal displacements during the cycles. When a multidirectional cyclic loading is applied, it also leads to an accumulation of the deviated horizontal displacements, and the resulting accumulated horizontal displacements are larger than for a mono-directional cyclic loading of the same amplitude. View Full-Text
Keywords: numerical modelling; pile; lateral cyclic loading; multidirectional loading; offshore wind turbine numerical modelling; pile; lateral cyclic loading; multidirectional loading; offshore wind turbine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jenck, O.; Obaei, A.; Emeriault, F.; Dano, C. Effect of Horizontal Multidirectional Cyclic Loading on Piles in Sand: A Numerical Analysis. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 235. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020235

AMA Style

Jenck O, Obaei A, Emeriault F, Dano C. Effect of Horizontal Multidirectional Cyclic Loading on Piles in Sand: A Numerical Analysis. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(2):235. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020235

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jenck, Orianne, Armita Obaei, Fabrice Emeriault, and Christophe Dano. 2021. "Effect of Horizontal Multidirectional Cyclic Loading on Piles in Sand: A Numerical Analysis" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 2: 235. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020235

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