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Article

Valorization Use of Amphipod Meal, Gammarus pulex, as a Fishmeal Substitute on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Histological and Histometric Indices of the Gut, and Economic Revenue of Grey Mullet

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National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, NIOF, Cairo 11516, Egypt
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Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Nasr City 11823, Egypt
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Fish Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11823, Egypt
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Department of Biology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Aquatic Resources, Natural Resources Studies and Research Department, College of High Asian Studies, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
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Animal and Fish Production Department, College of Agricultural and Food Sciences, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 420, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
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Fish and Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Alexandria University, Alexandria 21531, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Caterina Longo, Cataldo Pierri and Ka Hou Chu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121336
Received: 20 October 2021 / Revised: 13 November 2021 / Accepted: 26 November 2021 / Published: 27 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives in Sustainable Aquaculture)
The future of aquaculture development is directed toward high intensification to overcome the decline in natural fishing and to provide enough protein for the increasing world population. The spread of aquaculture production and intensification requires the search for high-quality, new efficient feed ingredients with low cost and sustainable importance. Therefore, the current study aimed to detect the effects of partial or total replacement of fishmeal with amphipod meal, Gammarus pulex, on growth performance, survival percent, feed utilization, histological alteration of intestine and liver, and economic yield of grey mullet, Mugil cephalus, fry. Five diets were formulated to contain 100% fishmeal (FM), or FM replaced with 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% amphipod meal (APM) (D0, D25, D50, D75, and D100, respectively). A total of 300 grey mullet fry (0.097 ± 0.001 g), were divided into five groups (three replicates each) at an initial stocking density of 20 fry per aquaria (100 L). The aquarium’s water is renewed at a rate of 30% daily. During a 60-day experimental period, the feeding rate was 20% of body weight, which was introduced as five meals per day. Fish fed D50 achieved the highest significant values of final weight (1.80 g), weight gain (1.70 g), survival (86.67%), final length (4.47 cm), and length gain (2.06 cm). In addition, the feed utilization of diets containing increasing substitution levels of FM showed that the highest protein intake (0.82 g ish−1), protein efficiency ratio (0.83), protein productive value (30.65%), and the lowest significant feed conversion ratio (1.21) were recorded with D50. The dose-response study revealed that the best substitution levels could range between 50% and 75%. Histological observations confirmed that the highest number of goblet cells and intestinal villi were recorded in the group fed D50. No pathological effect was observed in the liver at all substitution levels. In terms of economic efficiency, the best economic conversion ratio was recorded in the group fed D50. This study confirmed that 50% partial substitution of FM with APM is the ideal replacement level for grey mullet fry. In addition, the use of a new renewable alternative, such as APM to substitute FM, could relieve the pressure on the capture of wild fish and reduce the environmental impact of inland aquaculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein sources; amphipod meal; substitution; grey mullet; growth performance; histological changes protein sources; amphipod meal; substitution; grey mullet; growth performance; histological changes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ashour, M.; Abo-Taleb, H.A.; Hassan, A.-K.M.; Abdelzaher, O.F.; Mabrouk, M.M.; Elokaby, M.A.; Alzahrani, O.M.; Mahmoud, S.F.; El-feky, M.M.M.; Shaban, W.M.; Mansour, A.T. Valorization Use of Amphipod Meal, Gammarus pulex, as a Fishmeal Substitute on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Histological and Histometric Indices of the Gut, and Economic Revenue of Grey Mullet. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 1336. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121336

AMA Style

Ashour M, Abo-Taleb HA, Hassan A-KM, Abdelzaher OF, Mabrouk MM, Elokaby MA, Alzahrani OM, Mahmoud SF, El-feky MMM, Shaban WM, Mansour AT. Valorization Use of Amphipod Meal, Gammarus pulex, as a Fishmeal Substitute on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Histological and Histometric Indices of the Gut, and Economic Revenue of Grey Mullet. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(12):1336. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121336

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ashour, Mohamed, Hamdy A. Abo-Taleb, Abdel-Kader M. Hassan, Othman F. Abdelzaher, Mohamed M. Mabrouk, Mohamed A. Elokaby, Othman M. Alzahrani, Samy F. Mahmoud, Mohamed M.M. El-feky, Walaa M. Shaban, and Abdallah T. Mansour. 2021. "Valorization Use of Amphipod Meal, Gammarus pulex, as a Fishmeal Substitute on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Histological and Histometric Indices of the Gut, and Economic Revenue of Grey Mullet" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 12: 1336. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121336

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