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Article

Non-Indigenous Species on Artificial Coastal Environments: Experimental Comparison between Aquaculture Farms and Recreational Marinas

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Centro Oceanográfico de Baleares (IEO, CSIC), Muelle de Poniente s/n, 07015 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Oceanic Observatory of Madeira, Agência Regional para o Desenvolvimento da Investigação Tecnologia e Inovação, Edifício Madeira Tecnopolo, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Portugal
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Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Agência Regional para o Desenvolvimento da Investigação Tecnologia e Inovação, Edifício Madeira Tecnopolo, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Portugal
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Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, MD 21037, USA
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Regional Directorate for the Sea, Lota do Funchal, Rua Virgílio Teixeira, 9004-562 Funchal, Portugal
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Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Av. General Norton de Matos, 4450-238 Matosinhos, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gianluca SARA’
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101121
Received: 21 September 2021 / Revised: 4 October 2021 / Accepted: 11 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biological Invasions: Experimental Approaches)
Globally, there is growing concern regarding the effects of the increasing anthropogenic pressures in marine communities. Artificial structures such as marinas and aquaculture facilities serve as invasion hotspots; hence, monitoring fouling communities on these structures can be valuable for detecting new invasions. In the current study, 24 settlement PVC plates were deployed for three months to compare the recruitment ability of these two artificial environments along the south coast of the offshore island of Madeira (NE Atlantic). The results showed higher variations in the species richness between regions (SW vs. SE) than between artificial habitats (sea-cages vs. marinas), although the community composition differed. Cnidaria and Bryozoa were the most representative groups in the aquaculture systems, while Bryozoa and Chordata were in the marinas. A sum of 18 NIS was recorded for the study, accounting for between 21.88% and 54.84% of the total number of species in the aquaculture facilities and marinas, respectively. The higher NIS percentage from the marinas was even more explicit in the SE coast, where Cradoscrupocellaria bertholletii, Parasmittina alba, and Botrylloides niger distinctly dominated fouling populations. The results suggest that at least some particular NIS previously reported in the studied marinas successfully colonized sea-cages. Future assessments need to address the potential role of aquaculture facilities as drivers for the secondary spread of NIS. Additionally, two new records are considered for Madeira: Eudendrium capillare and Ericthonius punctatus. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofouling; artificial substrate; sea-cages; shipping; Madeira; Macaronesia biofouling; artificial substrate; sea-cages; shipping; Madeira; Macaronesia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Png-Gonzalez, L.; Ramalhosa, P.; Gestoso, I.; Álvarez, S.; Nogueira, N. Non-Indigenous Species on Artificial Coastal Environments: Experimental Comparison between Aquaculture Farms and Recreational Marinas. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 1121. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101121

AMA Style

Png-Gonzalez L, Ramalhosa P, Gestoso I, Álvarez S, Nogueira N. Non-Indigenous Species on Artificial Coastal Environments: Experimental Comparison between Aquaculture Farms and Recreational Marinas. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(10):1121. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101121

Chicago/Turabian Style

Png-Gonzalez, Lydia, Patrício Ramalhosa, Ignacio Gestoso, Soledad Álvarez, and Natacha Nogueira. 2021. "Non-Indigenous Species on Artificial Coastal Environments: Experimental Comparison between Aquaculture Farms and Recreational Marinas" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 10: 1121. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101121

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