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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ice Algal Trophic Markers—With Recommendations about Their Application

1
Akvaplan-Niva, CIENS, Gaustadalléen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway
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Scottish Association of Marine Sciences, Oban PA37 1QA, UK
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Alfred-Wegener-Institute, Helmholtz-Centre for Polar and Marine Research, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
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Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Science, 81-712 Sopot, Poland
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Institute of Marine Research, Fram Centre, 9007 Tromsø, Norway
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Department of Arctic Geophysics, University Centre of Svalbard, 9171 Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway
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Norwegian Polar Institute, 9296 Tromsø, Norway
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Department of Arctic Biology, University Centre of Svalbard, 9171 Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway
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Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 8, 3584 Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08002 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(9), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090676
Received: 10 July 2020 / Revised: 19 August 2020 / Accepted: 21 August 2020 / Published: 2 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology of Sea Ice Algae)
Assessing the relative importance of sea ice algal-based production is often vital for studies about climate change impacts on Arctic marine ecosystems. Several types of lipid biomarkers and stable isotope ratios are widely used for tracing sea ic-associated (sympagic) vs. pelagic particulate organic matter (POM) in marine food webs. However, there has been limited understanding about the plasticity of these compounds in space and time, which constrains the robustness of some of those approaches. Furthermore, some of the markers are compromised by not being unambiguously specific for sea ice algae, whereas others might only be produced by a small sub-group of species. We analyzed fatty acids, highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs), stable isotope ratios of particulate organic carbon (POC) (δ13C), as well as δ13C of selected fatty acid markers during an Arctic sea ice algal bloom, focusing on spatial and temporal variability. We found remarkable differences between these approaches and show that inferences about bloom characteristics might even be contradictory between markers. The impact of environmental factors as causes of this considerable variability is highlighted and explained. We emphasize that awareness and, in some cases, caution is required when using lipid and stable isotope markers as tracers in food web studies and offer recommendations for the proper application of these valuable approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: trophic marker; lipid; fatty acid; highly branched isoprenoid (HBI); IP25; H-Print; stable isotope ratio; compound-specific isotope analysis trophic marker; lipid; fatty acid; highly branched isoprenoid (HBI); IP25; H-Print; stable isotope ratio; compound-specific isotope analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leu, E.; Brown, T.A.; Graeve, M.; Wiktor, J.; Hoppe, C.J.M.; Chierici, M.; Fransson, A.; Verbiest, S.; Kvernvik, A.C.; Greenacre, M.J. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ice Algal Trophic Markers—With Recommendations about Their Application. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 676. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090676

AMA Style

Leu E, Brown TA, Graeve M, Wiktor J, Hoppe CJM, Chierici M, Fransson A, Verbiest S, Kvernvik AC, Greenacre MJ. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ice Algal Trophic Markers—With Recommendations about Their Application. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(9):676. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090676

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leu, Eva; Brown, Thomas A.; Graeve, Martin; Wiktor, Jozef; Hoppe, Clara J.M.; Chierici, Melissa; Fransson, Agneta; Verbiest, Sander; Kvernvik, Ane C.; Greenacre, Michael J. 2020. "Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ice Algal Trophic Markers—With Recommendations about Their Application" J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 8, no. 9: 676. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090676

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