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Article

Effects of Ethinylestradiol (EE2) and an Organophosphorus Flame Retardant (TCPP) on Gonadal Maturation in the Sea Urchin, Paracentrotus lividus

1
Ecology and Animal Biology Department, University of Vigo, Vigo, 36310 Galicia, Spain
2
Toralla Marine Station (ECIMAT, CIM), University of Vigo, Vigo, 36331 Galicia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(8), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080611
Received: 28 June 2020 / Revised: 4 August 2020 / Accepted: 13 August 2020 / Published: 16 August 2020
The sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) was used to test the effects of one of the most abundant flame retardant additives for plastics, tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and the synthetic hormone ethinylestradiol (EE2) on gametogenesis and gonad development of adults. With this aim, 403 individuals of both sexes were exposed to TCPP concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 10 µg/L, EE2 (0.01 µg/L), seawater and solvent controls for 7 and 28 days. EE2 and TCPP exposure did not cause histological damage in the gonads. Some evidence of estrogenic effects of TCPP within the µg/L range and EE2 within the ng/L range is reported. Females exposed to 1 µg/L TCPP for 7 days showed a significant increase in gonad development assessed as gametogenic stage, females exposed to 10 µg/L TCPP showed increased gonad development both in terms of weight (Gonad Index, GI, at both 7 and 28 days) and maturation (Pixelar Index, PI), and females exposed to 10 ng/L EE2 showed increased PI after 28 days exposure. Male sea urchins exposed to both TCPP and EE2 for 7 days showed increased frequencies of low development gonad stage. However, the patterns of response are affected by the high inter-individual variability, the differing initial stage of the gonad, as well as the dosage administered. View Full-Text
Keywords: endocrine disruptors; organophosphorus flame retardant; xenoestrogens; Paracentrotus lividus; echinoderms endocrine disruptors; organophosphorus flame retardant; xenoestrogens; Paracentrotus lividus; echinoderms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Campoy-López, P.; Pereira-Pinto, E.; Mantilla-Aldana, L.; Beiras, R. Effects of Ethinylestradiol (EE2) and an Organophosphorus Flame Retardant (TCPP) on Gonadal Maturation in the Sea Urchin, Paracentrotus lividus. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 611. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080611

AMA Style

Campoy-López P, Pereira-Pinto E, Mantilla-Aldana L, Beiras R. Effects of Ethinylestradiol (EE2) and an Organophosphorus Flame Retardant (TCPP) on Gonadal Maturation in the Sea Urchin, Paracentrotus lividus. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(8):611. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080611

Chicago/Turabian Style

Campoy-López, Pedro, Estefanía Pereira-Pinto, Leonardo Mantilla-Aldana, and Ricardo Beiras. 2020. "Effects of Ethinylestradiol (EE2) and an Organophosphorus Flame Retardant (TCPP) on Gonadal Maturation in the Sea Urchin, Paracentrotus lividus" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8, no. 8: 611. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080611

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