The wave impacts on horizontal and vertical step fronts of stepped revetments is investigated by means of hydraulic model tests conducted with wave spectra in a wave flume. Wave impacts on revetments with relative step heights of 0.3 < Hm0
< 3.5 and a constant slope of 1:2 are analyzed with respect to (1) the probability distribution of the impacts, (2) the time evolution of impacts including a classification of load cases, and (3) a special distribution of the position of the maximum impact. The validity of the approved log-normal probability distribution for the largest wave impacts is experimentally verified for stepped revetments. The wave impact properties for stepped revetments are compared with those of vertical seawalls, showing that their impact rising times are within the same range. The impact duration for stepped revetments is shorter and decreases with increasing step height. Maximum horizontal wave impact loads are about two times larger than the corresponding maximum vertical wave impact loads. Horizontal and vertical impact loads increase with a decreasing step height. Data are compared with findings from literature for stepped revetments and vertical walls. A prediction formula is provided to calculate the maximum horizontal wave impact at stepped revetments along its vertical axis.
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