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Hydrodynamic Zone of Influence Due to a Floating Structure in a Fjordal Estuary—Hood Canal Bridge Impact Assessment

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040119
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 6 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract

Floating structures such as barges and ships affect near-field hydrodynamics and create a zone of influence (ZOI). Extent of the ZOI is of particular interest due to potential obstruction to and impact on out-migrating juvenile fish. Here, we present an assessment of ZOI from Hood Canal (Floating) Bridge, located within the 110-km-long fjord-like Hood Canal sub-basin in the Salish Sea, Washington. A field data collection program allowed near-field validation of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Hood Canal with the floating bridge section embedded. The results confirm that Hood Canal Bridge, with a draft of 4.6 m covering ~85% of the width of Hood Canal, obstructs the brackish outflow surface layer. This induces increased local mixing near the bridge, causes pooling of water (up-current) during ebb and flood, and results in shadow/sheltering of water (down-current). The change in ambient currents, salinity, and temperature is highest at the bridge location and reduces to background levels with distance from the bridge. The ZOI extends ~20 m below the surface and varies from 2–3 km for currents, from 2–4 km for salinity, and from 2–5 km for temperature before the deviations with the bridge drop to <10% relative to simulated background conditions without the bridge present. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hood Canal; floating bridge; Salish Sea; hydrodynamics; Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM); circulation; anthropogenic impact; zone of influence; Salish Sea model Hood Canal; floating bridge; Salish Sea; hydrodynamics; Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM); circulation; anthropogenic impact; zone of influence; Salish Sea model
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Khangaonkar, T.; Nugraha, A.; Wang, T. Hydrodynamic Zone of Influence Due to a Floating Structure in a Fjordal Estuary—Hood Canal Bridge Impact Assessment. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6, 119.

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