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The Shifting Mycotoxin Profiles of Endophytic Fusarium Strains: A Case Study

1
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy
2
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection (IPSP), National Research Council (CNR), 80055 Portici, Italy
3
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Centre for Olive, Citrus and Tree Fruit, 81100 Caserta, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2019, 9(7), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9070143
Received: 1 June 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Functions of Endophytic Fungi in Crop Species)
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Abstract

Fusarium species are known to establish manifold interactions with wild and crop plants ranging from pathogenicity to endophytism. One of the key factors involved in the regulation of such relationships is represented by the production of secondary metabolites. These include several mycotoxins, which can accumulate in foodstuffs causing severe health problems to humans and animals. In the present study, an endophytic isolate (A1021B), preliminarily ascribed to the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), was subjected to biochemical and molecular characterization. The metabolomic analysis of axenic cultures of A1021B detected up to 206 compounds, whose production was significantly affected by the medium composition. Among the most representative products, fusaric acid (FA), its derivatives fusarinol and 9,10-dehydro-FA, culmorin and bikaverin were detected. These results were in contrast with previous assessments reporting FIESC members as trichothecene rather than FA producers. However, molecular analysis provided a conclusive indication that A1021B actually belongs to the species Fusarium babinda. These findings highlight the importance of phylogenetic analyses of Fusarium species to avoid misleading identifications, and the opportunity to extend databases with the outcome of metabolomic investigations of strains from natural contexts. The possible contribution of endophytic strains in the differentiation of lineages with an uneven mycotoxin assortment is discussed in view of its ensuing impact on crop productions. View Full-Text
Keywords: endophytic fungi; Fusarium; species complexes; mycotoxins; fusaric acid; trichothecenes; biosynthetic gene clusters endophytic fungi; Fusarium; species complexes; mycotoxins; fusaric acid; trichothecenes; biosynthetic gene clusters
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Manganiello, G.; Marra, R.; Staropoli, A.; Lombardi, N.; Vinale, F.; Nicoletti, R. The Shifting Mycotoxin Profiles of Endophytic Fusarium Strains: A Case Study. Agriculture 2019, 9, 143.

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