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Planting Date Effects on Cotton Lint Yield and Fiber Quality in the U.S. Southern High Plains

1
U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Cropping Systems Research Laboratory, Wind Erosion and Water Conservation Research Unit, Lubbock, TX 79415, USA
2
U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Cropping Systems Research Laboratory, Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Research Group, Lubbock, TX 79415, USA
3
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A & M AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Lubbock, TX 79403-6603, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2019, 9(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9040082
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cotton Production and Quality Research)
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Abstract

Cotton planting date effects in the U.S. Southern High Plains (SHP) were evaluated based on 11 years of May-planted and June-planted irrigated variety trials. Multiple cultivars planted in each year’s trial allowed for the calculation of 153 yield effects and 162 effects in 5 fiber quality parameters. Yield and quality effects were considered in the context of related changes in total growing season degree days (GDDS) and total cool hours (CHRS) during a boll formation period 80 to 110 days after planting. May planting increased GDDS and significantly increased yields in 8 of 10 years that comparisons could be made. Micronaire and fiber elongation were the most sensitive quality parameters to planting date. June planting resulted in increased CHRS every year and a significantly higher incidence of low micronaire in 7 of 11 years. In 7 of 11 years May planting significantly reduced fiber elongation relative to June planting. Analysis of SHP temperature data show that late-April to early-May planting dates may increase yield and micronaire by maximizing GDDS and minimizing CHRS. Although this practice may be optimal to the SHP environment it may also require high-vigor seed and pre-planting irrigation. Adapting genetics to an early planting strategy might include selecting for improved seed vigor and cold germination with acceptable yield and fiber quality traits. View Full-Text
Keywords: cotton production; lint yield; fiber quality; micronaire; cooling hours; growing degree days; genetics X environment X management cotton production; lint yield; fiber quality; micronaire; cooling hours; growing degree days; genetics X environment X management
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Mauget, S.; Ulloa, M.; Dever, J. Planting Date Effects on Cotton Lint Yield and Fiber Quality in the U.S. Southern High Plains. Agriculture 2019, 9, 82.

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