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Biological Control May Fail on Pests Applied with High Doses of Insecticides: Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of a Pyrethroid on the Host-Searching Behavior of the Aphid Parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) on Aphid Pests

1
Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Talca, 1 Poniente 1141, Talca 3460000, Chile
2
Centre for Molecular and Functional Ecology in Agroecosystems, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile
3
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frédéric Francis
Agriculture 2021, 11(6), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11060539
Received: 16 April 2021 / Revised: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 11 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Insect Behavioral Ecology)
The use of synthetic insecticides may cause failures in the biological control of insect pests due to undesired side effects on natural enemies and the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance in agroecosystems. Residues of neurotoxic insecticides can interfere with the recognition of chemical cues used by natural enemies to find pests. We investigated the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin on the interaction between the aphid parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani and the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae. We studied changes in host-searching and oviposition behavior through laboratory bioassays when susceptible and kdr-resistant aphids are offered to parasitoid females, evaluating the effect of applying insecticides on the interacting species. The patch residence time, exploration, oviposition, and grooming were significantly disturbed when the parasitoids were offered resistant aphids sprayed with sub-lethal doses, but not when the parasitoids were offered susceptible M. persicae exposed to sub-lethal doses. We discuss how the effects of insecticides on parasitism behavior may result in failures of biological control if natural enemy populations are not adequately managed, particularly for the management of insecticide-resistant pest populations. Efforts to introduce biological control in integrated pest management (IPM) programs are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: parasitism behavior; aphid–parasitoid interaction; insecticides; pyrethroids; sub-lethal effects parasitism behavior; aphid–parasitoid interaction; insecticides; pyrethroids; sub-lethal effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alfaro-Tapia, A.; Alvarez-Baca, J.K.; Fuentes-Contreras, E.; Figueroa, C.C. Biological Control May Fail on Pests Applied with High Doses of Insecticides: Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of a Pyrethroid on the Host-Searching Behavior of the Aphid Parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) on Aphid Pests. Agriculture 2021, 11, 539. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11060539

AMA Style

Alfaro-Tapia A, Alvarez-Baca JK, Fuentes-Contreras E, Figueroa CC. Biological Control May Fail on Pests Applied with High Doses of Insecticides: Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of a Pyrethroid on the Host-Searching Behavior of the Aphid Parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) on Aphid Pests. Agriculture. 2021; 11(6):539. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11060539

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alfaro-Tapia, Armando, Jeniffer K. Alvarez-Baca, Eduardo Fuentes-Contreras, and Christian C. Figueroa 2021. "Biological Control May Fail on Pests Applied with High Doses of Insecticides: Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of a Pyrethroid on the Host-Searching Behavior of the Aphid Parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) on Aphid Pests" Agriculture 11, no. 6: 539. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11060539

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