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Morphological Characterization and Determination of Aflatoxigenic and Non-Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Isolated from Sweet Corn Kernels and Soil in Malaysia

1
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2
Department of Food Service and Management, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Malaysia
3
Laboratory of Halal Science Research, Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Malaysia
4
Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2020, 10(10), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10100450
Received: 28 March 2020 / Revised: 3 June 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
This study aimed to morphologically characterize and determine the aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates. Forty isolates of A. flavus were obtained from sweet corn kernels and soil samples collected from Kampong Raja, Rose Valley, Kea, and Klebang farms in Malaysia. They were cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA), dichloran rose-bengal chloramphenicol (DRBC), Aspergillusflavus and Aspergillus parasiticus agar (AFPA), and coconut cream agar (CCA). Macromorphological characteristics were determined by observing the colony color and texture, while the micromorphological characteristics were determined by examining the spore color, size, structure, conidiophore structure, and vesicle shape. The production of aflatoxin was determined by direct visualization of the UV fluorescence of A. flavus colonies on CCA. Aflatoxin was qualitatively detected in 18 (45%) isolates of A. flavus using UV fluorescence screening while the remaining 22 (55%) isolates did not exhibit any aflatoxin production. The highest incidence of A. flavus (30%) and aflatoxin production (15%) was recorded in samples from Kampong Raja. On the other hand, isolates from Rose Valley (17%) and Kea (12%) were non-aflatoxigenic. Klebang recorded a 25% incidence of A. flavus in which 15% were aflatoxigenic while 10% were non-aflatoxigenic. The occurrence of aflatoxin-producing A. flavus emphasizes the need for the measure to eradicate their presence in food crops. A biological control treatment utilizing the non-aflatoxigenic strains to compete with the aflatoxigenic ones is underway. Validation of aflatoxin production through high performance liquid chromatography is also ongoing. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin; Aspergillus flavus; morphological characterization; UV fluorescence aflatoxin; Aspergillus flavus; morphological characterization; UV fluorescence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, R.; Mohamad Ghazali, F.; Mahyudin, N.A.; Samsudin, N.I.P. Morphological Characterization and Determination of Aflatoxigenic and Non-Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Isolated from Sweet Corn Kernels and Soil in Malaysia. Agriculture 2020, 10, 450. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10100450

AMA Style

Khan R, Mohamad Ghazali F, Mahyudin NA, Samsudin NIP. Morphological Characterization and Determination of Aflatoxigenic and Non-Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Isolated from Sweet Corn Kernels and Soil in Malaysia. Agriculture. 2020; 10(10):450. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10100450

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Rahim, Farinazleen Mohamad Ghazali, Nor A. Mahyudin, and Nik I.P. Samsudin 2020. "Morphological Characterization and Determination of Aflatoxigenic and Non-Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Isolated from Sweet Corn Kernels and Soil in Malaysia" Agriculture 10, no. 10: 450. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10100450

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