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Open AccessArticle

Early Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Brazil: A National Survey

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Campus Araraquara, São Paulo 14800-903, Brazil
School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Campus Araraquara, São Paulo 14801-903, Brazil
William James Center for Research (WJCR), University Institute of Psychological, Social, and Life Sciences (ISPA), 1100-304 Lisbon, Portugal
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine General Interne Medicine and International Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2976;
Received: 27 August 2020 / Revised: 10 September 2020 / Accepted: 12 September 2020 / Published: 15 September 2020
Background: Isolation measures used to contain epidemics generate social interaction restrictions and impose changes in routines of the public that increase negative psychological outcomes. Anxiety and depression are the most common symptoms. Objective: To evaluate the mental health of the Brazilian population during the SARs-CoV-2 pandemic and its relationship with demographic and health characteristics. Methods: Adults from all Brazilian States participated (n = 12,196; women: 69.8%, mean age = 35.2 years). The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and the Impact of Event Scale–revised were used (online survey). Data validity and reliability were verified by confirmatory factor analysis and ordinal alpha coefficient. The probability of presenting psychological symptoms was calculated by multiple logistic regression and odds ratio (OR) (0 = without symptoms, 1 = with mild, moderate, and severe levels of symptoms). Results: High prevalence of depression (61.3%), anxiety (44.2%), stress (50.8%), and psychological impact (54.9%) due to the isolation experienced from the pandemic was found. Younger individuals (OR = 1.58–3.58), those that felt unsafe (OR = 1.75–2.92), with a previous diagnosis of mental health (OR = 1.72–2.64) and/or had general health problems before the pandemic (OR = 1.17–1.51), who noticed changes in their mental state due to the pandemic context (OR = 2.53–9.07), and excessively exposed to the news (OR = 1.19–2.18) were at increased risk of developing symptoms. Women (OR = 1.35–1.65) and those with lower economic status (OR = 1.38–2.69) were more likely to develop psychological symptoms. Lower educational levels increased the likelihood of depressive (OR = 1.03–1.34) and intrusive symptoms (OR = 1.09–1.51). Conclusions: The pandemic and related factors can have a high impact on the mental health of the population. Demographic characteristics can influence the occurrence of psychological symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: pandemic; COVID-19; mental health; quarantine pandemic; COVID-19; mental health; quarantine
MDPI and ACS Style

Campos, J.A.D.B.; Martins, B.G.; Campos, L.A.; Marôco, J.; Saadiq, R.A.; Ruano, R. Early Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Brazil: A National Survey. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2976.

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