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Comment published on 27 October 2020, see J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3442.
Article

The Role of Health Preconditions on COVID-19 Deaths in Portugal: Evidence from Surveillance Data of the First 20293 Infection Cases

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IMPSP—Instituto de Medicina Preventiva e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Laboratório de Biomatemática, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal
3
ISBE—Instituto de Saúde Baseada na Evidência, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal
4
ISAMB—Instituto de Saúde Ambiental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal
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Clínica Universitária de Estomatologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal
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UEPID—Unidade de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Medicina Preventiva e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal
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ESEL—Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Lisboa, Polo Calouste Gulbenkian Avenida Prof Egas Moniz, 1600-190 Lisboa, Portugal
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CRC-W—Católica Research Centre for Psychological, Family and Social Wellbeing, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Palma de Cima, 1649-023 Lisboa, Portugal
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National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Av. Padre Cruz, 1600-560 Lisboa, Portugal
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Cochrane Portugal, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(8), 2368; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082368
Received: 12 June 2020 / Revised: 8 July 2020 / Accepted: 18 July 2020 / Published: 24 July 2020
Background: It is essential to study the effect of potential co-factors on the risk of death in patients infected by COVID-19. The identification of risk factors is important to allow more efficient public health and health services strategic interventions with a significant impact on deaths by COVID-19. This study aimed to identify factors associated with COVID-19 deaths in Portugal. Methods: A national dataset with the first 20,293 patients infected with COVID-19 between 1 January and 21 April 2020 was analyzed. The primary outcome measure was mortality by COVID-19, measured (registered and confirmed) by Medical Doctors serving as health delegates on the daily death registry. A logistic regression model using a generalized linear model was used for estimating Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for each potential risk indicator. Results: A total of 502 infected patients died of COVID-19. The risk factors for increased odds of death by COVID-19 were: sex (male: OR = 1.47, ref = female), age ((56–60) years, OR = 6.01; (61–65) years, OR = 10.5; (66–70) years, OR = 20.4; (71–75) years, OR = 34; (76–80) years, OR = 50.9; (81–85) years, OR = 70.7; (86–90) years, OR = 83.2; (91–95) years, OR = 91.8; (96–104) years, OR = 140.2, ref = (0–55)), Cardiac disease (OR = 2.86), Kidney disorder (OR = 2.95), and Neuromuscular disorder (OR = 1.58), while condition (None (absence of precondition); OR = 0.49) was associated with a reduced chance of dying after adjusting for other variables of interest. Conclusions: Besides age and sex, preconditions justify the risk difference in mortality by COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; mortality; demographics; systemic condition; cardiovascular; cancer; diabetes; epidemiology; logistic regression; area under the curve COVID-19; mortality; demographics; systemic condition; cardiovascular; cancer; diabetes; epidemiology; logistic regression; area under the curve
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nogueira, P.J.; de Araújo Nobre, M.; Costa, A.; Ribeiro, R.M.; Furtado, C.; Bacelar Nicolau, L.; Camarinha, C.; Luís, M.; Abrantes, R.; Vaz Carneiro, A. The Role of Health Preconditions on COVID-19 Deaths in Portugal: Evidence from Surveillance Data of the First 20293 Infection Cases. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2368. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082368

AMA Style

Nogueira PJ, de Araújo Nobre M, Costa A, Ribeiro RM, Furtado C, Bacelar Nicolau L, Camarinha C, Luís M, Abrantes R, Vaz Carneiro A. The Role of Health Preconditions on COVID-19 Deaths in Portugal: Evidence from Surveillance Data of the First 20293 Infection Cases. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(8):2368. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082368

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nogueira, Paulo J.; de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Costa, Andreia; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Furtado, Cristina; Bacelar Nicolau, Leonor; Camarinha, Catarina; Luís, Márcia; Abrantes, Ricardo; Vaz Carneiro, António. 2020. "The Role of Health Preconditions on COVID-19 Deaths in Portugal: Evidence from Surveillance Data of the First 20293 Infection Cases" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 8: 2368. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082368

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