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Article

Chronoradiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Morning Proton Beam Therapy Ameliorates Worsening Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

1
Department of Urology, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-3575, Japan
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2263; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072263
Received: 21 June 2020 / Revised: 10 July 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 16 July 2020
Background and Purpose: Worsening lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a frequent adverse event following proton beam therapy (PBT) for localized prostate cancer. We investigated the differences in worsening LUTS among patients who received PBT at different times of day. Participants and Methods: Among 173 patients who underwent PBT for prostate cancer, 168 patients (median age 68.5 years) completed international prostate symptom score (IPSS) questionnaires and were included. Changes in the IPSS from baseline to the end of PBT were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis for age, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk classification, androgen deprivation therapy, fractional PBT dose, clinical target volume, severity of IPSS, diabetes, LUTS medication use before PBT, anti-coagulant therapy and radiation time of day (morning (08:30–10:30), around noon (10:31–14:30), and late afternoon (14:31–16:30)). Results: IPSS total score and IPSS-Quality of Life (QoL) score (12 patients were excluded due to missing IPSS-QoL score) increased from eight to 14.9 (p < 0.0001) and from two to four (p < 0.0001), respectively. Time of day (morning) was the only determinant for worsening LUTS (β = −0.24, p < 0.01), voiding subscore (β = −0.22, p < 0.05) and IPSS-QoL (β = −0.27, p < 0.005), and was a determinant in item four (urgency) (β = −0.28, p < 0.005) with age (β = 0.19, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Morning PBT for localized prostate cancer significantly ameliorated worsening LUTS and improved QoL compared with treatment around noon or late afternoon. Chronoradiation therapy for localized prostate cancer may be effective and further research to elucidate the underlying mechanism is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiation; timing; LUTS; circadian radiation; timing; LUTS; circadian
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MDPI and ACS Style

Negoro, H.; Iizumi, T.; Mori, Y.; Matsumoto, Y.; Chihara, I.; Hoshi, A.; Sakurai, H.; Nishiyama, H.; Ishikawa, H. Chronoradiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Morning Proton Beam Therapy Ameliorates Worsening Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2263. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072263

AMA Style

Negoro H, Iizumi T, Mori Y, Matsumoto Y, Chihara I, Hoshi A, Sakurai H, Nishiyama H, Ishikawa H. Chronoradiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Morning Proton Beam Therapy Ameliorates Worsening Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(7):2263. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072263

Chicago/Turabian Style

Negoro, Hiromitsu, Takashi Iizumi, Yutaro Mori, Yoshitaka Matsumoto, Ichiro Chihara, Akio Hoshi, Hideyuki Sakurai, Hiroyuki Nishiyama, and Hitoshi Ishikawa. 2020. "Chronoradiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Morning Proton Beam Therapy Ameliorates Worsening Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 7: 2263. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072263

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