The incidence of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) after external cephalic version (ECV) has been poorly reported. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of FMH, diagnosed by positive Kleihauer–Betke test (KBT), after ECV attempt and then evaluate the relevance of its routine use after procedure. A total of 282 women with a term breech presentation and who had ECV attempt were recruited from January 2014 and December 2018. After ECV attempt, women were systematically screened for FMH using KBT. Data on ECV attempt, KBT results, perinatal and neonatal outcomes were collected and compared between women with positive (cases) and negative KBT (controls) after ECV. The success rate of ECV was 22.0% (62/282). Eight women (2.9%) experienced transient fetal heart rate (FHR) abnormalities after ECV. In five (1.8%) women, KBT was positive after ECV. Obstetrical management was modified for two of these five women due to continuous positivity of KBT at day 1 and day 7 controls after ECV attempt. A cesarean section was planned 7 days earlier due to persistent high FMH on day 7 (6 mL fetal blood) in one woman and the labor was induced for persistent high FMH on day 7 (20 mL fetal blood) for another woman. No newborns have signs of fetal anemia at birth and there was no significant difference in neonatal status between two groups. FMH after ECV attempt are rare, and no negative fetal or neonatal outcomes were observed when KBT was positive, even strongly (>5 mL fetal blood). It appears that systematic KBT after attempted ECV is probably not useful.
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