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Open AccessArticle

The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Differential Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases with CNS Involvement

1
Department of Neurology, Medical University of Lodz, 90-414 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Lodz, 90-414 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051565
Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 18 May 2020 / Accepted: 19 May 2020 / Published: 21 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
The purpose of this study was to examine whether application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements can provide a useful biomarker for distinguishing central nervous system (CNS) involvement in autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTD) from multiple sclerosis (MS). An observational study included non-optic neuritis eyes of 121 individuals: 59 patients with MS, 30 patients with CNS involvement in CTD, and 32 healthy controls. OCT examination was performed in all subjects to measure retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness, and volume of the macula. There was a significant group effect with regard to superior optic disc RNFL, macular RNFL, GCC, and GCIPL thickness, and macular volume. Post-hoc analysis revealed that MS patients have significantly smaller macular volume and thinner superior optic disc RNFL, macular RNFL, GCC, and GCIPL compared to healthy controls. CTD patients have significantly smaller superior optic disc RNFL, GCIPL, and GCC thickness compared to healthy controls. However, no significant group differences were observed between the patient groups (MS vs. CTD) on any outcome. Although a prominent retinal thinning may be a useful biomarker in MS patients, in a general population of individuals with a confirmed CNS involvement the use of OCT is not specific enough to discriminate between MS and autoimmune CTD. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical coherence tomography; multiple sclerosis; autoimmune connective tissue diseases; rheumatic disorders; differential diagnosis optical coherence tomography; multiple sclerosis; autoimmune connective tissue diseases; rheumatic disorders; differential diagnosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wildner, P.; Zydorczak, E.; Oset, M.; Siger, M.; Wilczyński, M.; Stasiołek, M.; Matysiak, M. The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Differential Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases with CNS Involvement. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1565.

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