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Open AccessArticle

Prevalence and Correlates of Lymphatic Filariasis Infection and Its Morbidity Following Mass Ivermectin and Albendazole Administration in Mkinga District, North-Eastern Tanzania

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Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital, 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden
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Tanzania Medicines and Medical Devices Authority (TMDA), Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 77150, Tanzania
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Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 65001, Tanzania
4
National Institute for Medical Research, Tanga Center, Tanga, P.O. Box 5004, Tanzania
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Neglected Tropical Diseases Control Programme, Dar es Salaam 40478, P.O. Box 743, Tanzania
6
Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials, Botswana Medicines Regulatory Authority, Gaborone 999106, Botswana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051550
Received: 8 April 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 21 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination as public health problem through morbidity management and preventive annual mass drug administration (MDA). This cross-sectional community-based surveillance assessed the prevalence and correlates of LF infection in Mkinga district, Tanga-region, Tanzania. A total of 4115 individuals (49.7% males, 35.2% children) were screened for circulating filarial antigens (CFA), microfilaremia (mf) and disease manifestations in 15 villages between November 2018 and January 2019. MDA uptake in the previous year was assessed. Overall prevalence of CFA-positivity was 5.8% (239/4115; 95% CI: 5.1–6.6), with significant heterogeneity between villages (range 1.2% to 13.5%). CFA-positivity was higher in males (8.8%) than females (3.3%), and correlated with increasing age (p < 0.001). Prevalence of mf among CFA-positives was 5.2%. Only 60% of eligible inhabitants in the study area took MDA in the previous year, and CFA-positivity was 2-fold higher in those who missed MDA (p < 0.0001). Prevalence of scrotal enlargement, hydrocele, arms or legs swelling, lymphoedema and lymphadenopathy was 6.4%, 3.7%, 1.35%, 1.2% and 0.32%, respectively. Compared to baseline data, 16 years of MDA intervention significantly reduced LF transmission and morbidity, although the intended elimination target of <1% mf and <2% antigenemia to level where recrudescence is unlikely to occur by the year 2020 may not be attained. The finding of hotspots with ongoing transmission calls for intensified control measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: circulatingfilarial antigen; microfilaremia; antigenemia; mass drug administration; ivermectin; albendazole; lymphatic filariasis; microfilariae; Wuchereria bancrofti; Tanga circulatingfilarial antigen; microfilaremia; antigenemia; mass drug administration; ivermectin; albendazole; lymphatic filariasis; microfilariae; Wuchereria bancrofti; Tanga
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Fimbo, A.M.; Minzi, O.M.; Mmbando, B.P.; Barry, A.; Nkayamba, A.F.; Mwamwitwa, K.W.; Malishee, A.; Seth, M.D.; Makunde, W.H.; Gurumurthy, P.; Lusingu, J.P.; Kamuhabwa, A.A.; Aklillu, E. Prevalence and Correlates of Lymphatic Filariasis Infection and Its Morbidity Following Mass Ivermectin and Albendazole Administration in Mkinga District, North-Eastern Tanzania. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1550.

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