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Does Motor Cortex Engagement During Movement Preparation Differentially Inhibit Nociceptive Processing in Patients with Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Healthy Controls? An Experimental Study

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Department of Neurosurgery, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
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Pain in Motion International Research Group, www.paininmotion.be, Brussels, Belgium
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Department of Physiotherapy, Human Physiology and Anatomy, Faculty of Physical Education & Physiotherapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
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Institute of Neuroscience, Université catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels, Belgium
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Knowledge, Information and Research Center (KIR), Group Idewe, 3001 Louvain, Belgium
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Department of Physical Medicine and Physiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
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Laboratory of Neurology, Translational Neurosciences, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
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Institute Born-Bunge, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
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Department of Neurology, Antwerp University Hospital,2650 Edegem, Belgium
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Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy (MOVANT), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
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Center for Neurosciences (C4N), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1090 Brussels, Belgium
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Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
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Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Department of Public Health (GEWE), Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051520
Received: 1 April 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 15 May 2020 / Published: 18 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Anesthesiology)
Background: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and chronic whiplash associated disorders (cWAD) present a reduced ability to activate central descending nociceptive inhibition after exercise, compared to measurements before exercise. It was hypothesised that a dysfunctional motor-induced inhibition of nociception partly explains this dysfunctional exercise-induced hypoalgesia. This study investigates if engagement of the motor system during movement preparation inhibits nociception-evoked brain responses in these patients as compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods: The experiment used laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) during three conditions (no task, mental task, movement preparation) while recording brain activity with a 32-channel electroencephalogram in 21 patients with cWAD, 20 patients with CFS and 18 HC. Two-factor mixed design Analysis of variance were used to evaluate differences in LEP amplitudes and latencies. Results: No differences in N1, N2, N2P2, and P2 LEP amplitudes were found between the HC, CFS, and cWAD groups. After nociceptive stimulation, N1, N2 (only at hand location), N2P2, and P2 LEP amplitudes significantly decreased during movement preparation compared to no task (within group differences). Conclusion: Movement preparation induces a similar attenuation of LEPs in patients with CFS, patients with cWAD and HC. These findings do not support reduced motor-induced nociceptive inhibition in these patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Laser-evoked potentials; exercise-induced hypoalgesia; chronic pain; EEG Laser-evoked potentials; exercise-induced hypoalgesia; chronic pain; EEG
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Goudman, L.; Mouraux, A.; Daenen, L.; Nijs, J.; Cras, P.; Roussel, N.; Moens, M.; Lenoir, D.; Coppieters, I.; Huysmans, E.; De Kooning, M. Does Motor Cortex Engagement During Movement Preparation Differentially Inhibit Nociceptive Processing in Patients with Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Healthy Controls? An Experimental Study. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1520.

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