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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of a Virtual Reality-Based Intervention Program on Cognition in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Control Trial

Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School, Dong-A University, Busan 49315, Korea
Laboratory of Smart Healthcare, Dong-A University, Busan 49315, Korea
Data Center for Korean EEG, College of Nursing, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea
Department of Neurology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan 49201, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1283;
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 25 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 29 April 2020
This study aimed to investigate the association between a virtual reality (VR) intervention program and cognitive, brain and physical functions in high-risk older adults. In a randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 68 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The MCI diagnosis was based on medical evaluations through a clinical interview conducted by a dementia specialist. Cognitive assessments were performed by neuropsychologists according to standardized methods, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and frontal cognitive function: trail making test (TMT) A & B, and symbol digit substitute test (SDST). Resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured in eyes open and eyes closed conditions for 5 minutes each, with a 19-channel wireless EEG device. The VR intervention program (3 times/week, 100 min each session) comprised four types of VR game-based content to improve the attention, memory and processing speed. Analysis of the subjects for group–time interactions revealed that the intervention group exhibited a significantly improved executive function and brain function at the resting state. Additionally, gait speed and mobility were also significantly improved between and after the follow-up. The VR-based training program improved cognitive and physical function in patients with MCI relative to controls. Encouraging patients to perform VR and game-based training may be beneficial to prevent cognitive decline. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual reality; dementia; mild cognitive impairment; electroencephalogram virtual reality; dementia; mild cognitive impairment; electroencephalogram
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Thapa, N.; Park, H.J.; Yang, J.-G.; Son, H.; Jang, M.; Lee, J.; Kang, S.W.; Park, K.W.; Park, H. The Effect of a Virtual Reality-Based Intervention Program on Cognition in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Control Trial. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1283.

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