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Open AccessArticle

Ventricular Repolarization is Associated with Cognitive Function, but Not with Cognitive Decline and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Measurements in Older Adults

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, the Netherlands
2
Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
3
Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
4
Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G31 2ER, UK
5
Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9040911 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 February 2020 / Revised: 23 March 2020 / Accepted: 25 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of electrocardiogram (ECG)-based QT, QTc, JT, JTc, and QRS intervals with cognitive function and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements in a cohort of older individuals at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but free of known arrhythmias. We studied 4627 participants (54% female, mean age 75 years) enrolled in the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). Ten-second ECGs were conducted at baseline. Cognitive function was tested at baseline and repeated during a mean follow-up time of 3.2 years. Structural MRIs were conducted in a subgroup of 535 participants. Analyses were performed with multivariable (repeated) linear regression models and adjusted for cardiovascular risk-factors, co-morbidities, and cardiovascular drug use. At baseline, longer QT, JT, JTc—but not QTc and QRS intervals—were associated with a worse cognitive performance. Most notably, on the Stroop Test, participants performed 3.02 (95% CI 0.31; 5.73) seconds worse per standard deviation higher QT interval, independent of cardiovascular risk factors and medication use. There was no association between longer ventricular de- or repolarization and structural brain measurements. Therefore, specifically ventricular repolarization was associated with worse cognitive performance in older individuals at baseline but not during follow-up.
Keywords: older adults; cardiovascular disease; cognitive dysfunction; MRI; prolonged QT interval older adults; cardiovascular disease; cognitive dysfunction; MRI; prolonged QT interval
MDPI and ACS Style

Zonneveld, M.H.; Noordam, R.; Grond, J.; Sabayan, B.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Mcfarlane, P.W.; Jukema, J.W.; Trompet, S. Ventricular Repolarization is Associated with Cognitive Function, but Not with Cognitive Decline and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Measurements in Older Adults. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 911.

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