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Open AccessReview

The COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control

1
Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
2
Department of Animal Hygiene, Zoonoses and Animal Ethology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
3
Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
4
Department of Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
5
Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
6
Avian and Rabbit Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sadat City University, Sadat 32897, Egypt
7
Research and Development Section, PerNaturam GmbH, 56290 Gödenroth, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041225
Received: 18 March 2020 / Revised: 19 April 2020 / Accepted: 21 April 2020 / Published: 24 April 2020
A pneumonia outbreak with unknown etiology was reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019, associated with the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. The causative agent of the outbreak was identified by the WHO as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), producing the disease named coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The virus is closely related (96.3%) to bat coronavirus RaTG13, based on phylogenetic analysis. Human-to-human transmission has been confirmed even from asymptomatic carriers. The virus has spread to at least 200 countries, and more than 1,700,000 confirmed cases and 111,600 deaths have been recorded, with massive global increases in the number of cases daily. Therefore, the WHO has declared COVID-19 a pandemic. The disease is characterized by fever, dry cough, and chest pain with pneumonia in severe cases. In the beginning, the world public health authorities tried to eradicate the disease in China through quarantine but are now transitioning to prevention strategies worldwide to delay its spread. To date, there are no available vaccines or specific therapeutic drugs to treat the virus. There are many knowledge gaps about the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, leading to misinformation. Therefore, in this review, we provide recent information about the COVID-19 pandemic. This review also provides insights for the control of pathogenic infections in humans such as SARS-CoV-2 infection and future spillovers. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; One Health; genetics; epidemiology; control; outbreak; pneumonia; treatment; diagnosis; public health SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; One Health; genetics; epidemiology; control; outbreak; pneumonia; treatment; diagnosis; public health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Helmy, Y.A.; Fawzy, M.; Elaswad, A.; Sobieh, A.; Kenney, S.P.; Shehata, A.A. The COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1225. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041225

AMA Style

Helmy YA, Fawzy M, Elaswad A, Sobieh A, Kenney SP, Shehata AA. The COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(4):1225. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041225

Chicago/Turabian Style

Helmy, Yosra A.; Fawzy, Mohamed; Elaswad, Ahmed; Sobieh, Ahmed; Kenney, Scott P.; Shehata, Awad A. 2020. "The COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 4: 1225. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041225

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