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Open AccessArticle

Assessing the Implementation of Pharmacogenomic Panel-Testing in Primary Care in the Netherlands Utilizing a Theoretical Framework

1
Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Toxicology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
2
Leiden Network for Personalised Therapeutics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
3
Community Pharmacy De Klipper, 2692 AH ‘s Gravenzande, The Netherlands
4
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030814
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 8 March 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 17 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Challenges in Pharmacogenomics)
Despite overcoming many implementation barriers, pharmacogenomic (PGx) panel-testing is not routine practice in the Netherlands. Therefore, we aim to study pharmacists’ perceived enablers and barriers for PGx panel-testing among pharmacists participating in a PGx implementation study. Here, pharmacists identify primary care patients, initiating one of 39 drugs with a Dutch Pharmacogenetic Working Group (DPWG) recommendation and subsequently utilizing the results of a 12 gene PGx panel test to guide dose and drug selection. Pharmacists were invited for a general survey and a semi-structured interview based on the Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases (TICD) framework, aiming to identify implementation enablers and barriers, if they had managed at least two patients with actionable PGx results. In total, 15 semi-structured interviews were performed before saturation point was reached. Of these, five barrier themes emerged: (1) unclear procedures, (2) undetermined reimbursement for PGx test and consult, (3) insufficient evidence of clinical utility for PGx panel-testing, (4) infrastructure inefficiencies, and (5) HCP PGx knowledge and awareness; and two enabler themes: (1) pharmacist perceived role in delivering PGx, and (2) believed clinical utility of PGx. Despite a strong belief in the beneficial effects of PGx, pharmacists’ barriers remain, an these hinder implementation in primary care. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmacogenomics; implementation; qualitative; framework; pharmacist; panel-testing pharmacogenomics; implementation; qualitative; framework; pharmacist; panel-testing
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MDPI and ACS Style

van der Wouden, C.H.; Paasman, E.; Teichert, M.; Crone, M.R.; Guchelaar, H.-J.; Swen, J.J. Assessing the Implementation of Pharmacogenomic Panel-Testing in Primary Care in the Netherlands Utilizing a Theoretical Framework. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 814. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030814

AMA Style

van der Wouden CH, Paasman E, Teichert M, Crone MR, Guchelaar H-J, Swen JJ. Assessing the Implementation of Pharmacogenomic Panel-Testing in Primary Care in the Netherlands Utilizing a Theoretical Framework. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(3):814. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030814

Chicago/Turabian Style

van der Wouden, Cathelijne H.; Paasman, Ellen; Teichert, Martina; Crone, Matty R.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Swen, Jesse J. 2020. "Assessing the Implementation of Pharmacogenomic Panel-Testing in Primary Care in the Netherlands Utilizing a Theoretical Framework" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 3: 814. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030814

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