Next Article in Journal
Combining Novel Biomarkers for Risk Stratification of Two-Year Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction
Next Article in Special Issue
The Dynamics of Respiratory Microbiota during Mechanical Ventilation in Patients with Pneumonia
Previous Article in Journal
Dysfunction of Salivary Glands, Disturbances in Salivary Antioxidants and Increased Oxidative Damage in Saliva of Overweight and Obese Adolescents
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cardiovascular Events after Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Global Perspective with Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Open AccessReview

Biomarkers in Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cardiac and Non-Cardiac)

Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe/Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria (IIS) La Fe, 46026 Valencia, Spain; Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Avda, Fernando Abril Martorell 106, 46026 Valencia, Spain
University of Valencia, Medicine Faculty, 46026 Valencia, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Pneumology Department, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 549;
Received: 7 January 2020 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 10 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains the first cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to infection. Several aspects such as severity and host response are related to its clinical course and outcome. Beyond the acute implications that the infection provokes in the host, pneumonia also has long-term negative consequences. Among them, cardiovascular complications and mortality are the most outstanding. Therefore, an adequate recognition and stratification of the risk of complications and mortality is crucial. Many biomarkers have been studied for these reasons, considering that each biomarker mirrors a different aspect. Moreover, the clinical application of many of them is still being deliberated because of their limitations and the heterogeneity of the disease. In this review, we examine some of the most relevant biomarkers that we have classified as cardiac and non-cardiac. We discuss some classic biomarkers and others that are considered novel biomarkers, which are mainly involved in cardiovascular risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: pneumonia; biomarkers; cardiac; cardiovascular pneumonia; biomarkers; cardiac; cardiovascular
MDPI and ACS Style

Méndez, R.; Aldás, I.; Menéndez, R. Biomarkers in Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cardiac and Non-Cardiac). J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 549.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop