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Cardiovascular Events after Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Global Perspective with Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Open AccessReview

Biomarkers in Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cardiac and Non-Cardiac)

1
Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe/Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria (IIS) La Fe, 46026 Valencia, Spain; Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Avda, Fernando Abril Martorell 106, 46026 Valencia, Spain
2
University of Valencia, Medicine Faculty, 46026 Valencia, Spain
3
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Pneumology Department, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020549
Received: 7 January 2020 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 10 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains the first cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to infection. Several aspects such as severity and host response are related to its clinical course and outcome. Beyond the acute implications that the infection provokes in the host, pneumonia also has long-term negative consequences. Among them, cardiovascular complications and mortality are the most outstanding. Therefore, an adequate recognition and stratification of the risk of complications and mortality is crucial. Many biomarkers have been studied for these reasons, considering that each biomarker mirrors a different aspect. Moreover, the clinical application of many of them is still being deliberated because of their limitations and the heterogeneity of the disease. In this review, we examine some of the most relevant biomarkers that we have classified as cardiac and non-cardiac. We discuss some classic biomarkers and others that are considered novel biomarkers, which are mainly involved in cardiovascular risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: pneumonia; biomarkers; cardiac; cardiovascular pneumonia; biomarkers; cardiac; cardiovascular
MDPI and ACS Style

Méndez, R.; Aldás, I.; Menéndez, R. Biomarkers in Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cardiac and Non-Cardiac). J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 549.

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