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Article

The Tryptophan System in Cocaine-Induced Depression

1
Addiction Research Group (GRAd), Neuroscience Research Program, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
2
Institut de Neuropsiquiatria i Addiccions, Hospital del Mar, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
3
Department of Psychiatry and Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08290 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain
4
Department of Experimental and Health Sciences (CEXS), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08002 Barcelona, Spain
5
Integrative Pharmacology and Systems Neuroscience Research Group, Neuroscience Research Programme, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
6
Clinical Pharmacology Department, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol (IGTP), 08003 Badalona, Spain
7
Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Universitat Politècnica de Barcelona Barcelonatech, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
8
Neurobiology of Behaviour Research Group (GReNeC-NeuroBio), Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08002 Barcelona, Spain
9
Neurobiology of Behaviour Research Group, Neuroscience Research Programme, Hospital del Mar Research Institute (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study.
NEURODEP GROUP: Josep Martí Bonany (J.M.B.), Julián Mateus (J.M.), Paola Rossi (P.R.), Claudio Tamarit (C.T.), Gabriel Vallecillo (G.V.).
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 4103; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124103
Received: 23 October 2020 / Revised: 13 December 2020 / Accepted: 17 December 2020 / Published: 19 December 2020
Major depression disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent psychiatric comorbid condition in cocaine use disorder (CUD). The comorbid MDD might be primary-MDD (CUD-primary-MDD) or cocaine-induced MDD (CUD-induced-MDD), and their accurate diagnoses and treatment is a challenge for improving prognoses. This study aimed to assess the tryptophan/serotonin (Trp/5-HT) system with the acute tryptophan depletion test (ATD), and the kynurenine pathway in subjects with CUD-primary-MDD, CUD-induced-MDD, MDD and healthy controls. The ATD was performed with a randomized, double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled design. Markers of enzymatic activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) and kynureninase were also established. Following ATD, we observed a decrease in Trp levels in all groups. Comparison between CUD-induced-MDD and MDD revealed significant differences in 5-HT plasma concentrations (512 + 332 ng/mL vs. 107 + 127 ng/mL, p = 0.039) and the Kyn/5-HT ratio (11 + 15 vs. 112 + 136; p = 0.012), whereas there were no differences between CUD-primary-MDD and MDD. Effect size coefficients show a gradient for all targeted markers (d range 0.72–1.67). Results suggest different pathogenesis for CUD-induced-MDD, with lower participation of the tryptophan system, probably more related to other neurotransmitter pathways and accordingly suggesting the need for a different pharmacological treatment approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: primary/substance-induced depression; cocaine use disorder; tryptophan; serotonin; kynurenine primary/substance-induced depression; cocaine use disorder; tryptophan; serotonin; kynurenine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fonseca, F.; Mestre-Pintó, J.-I.; Gómez-Gómez, À.; Martinez-Sanvisens, D.; Rodríguez-Minguela, R.; Papaseit, E.; Pérez-Mañá, C.; Langohr, K.; Valverde, O.; Pozo, Ó.J.; Farré, M.; Torrens, M.; on behalf of NEURODEP GROUP. The Tryptophan System in Cocaine-Induced Depression. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 4103. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124103

AMA Style

Fonseca F, Mestre-Pintó J-I, Gómez-Gómez À, Martinez-Sanvisens D, Rodríguez-Minguela R, Papaseit E, Pérez-Mañá C, Langohr K, Valverde O, Pozo ÓJ, Farré M, Torrens M, on behalf of NEURODEP GROUP. The Tryptophan System in Cocaine-Induced Depression. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(12):4103. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124103

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fonseca, Francina, Joan-Ignasi Mestre-Pintó, Àlex Gómez-Gómez, Diana Martinez-Sanvisens, Rocío Rodríguez-Minguela, Esther Papaseit, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Klaus Langohr, Olga Valverde, Óscar J. Pozo, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens, and on behalf of NEURODEP GROUP. 2020. "The Tryptophan System in Cocaine-Induced Depression" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 12: 4103. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124103

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