Periprosthetic joint infections of the shoulder (PJIS) are the major cause for revision within the first two post-operative years, and are challenging both to diagnose and treat. Success depends on early identification of microorganisms, appropriate surgical procedures and efficient antibiotic administration. The peculiar microbiology of the shoulder may render the criteria for hip/knee PJI management inappropriate. In addition, later cases with clinically subtle signs often present diagnostic challenges. In recent years, specific issues of PJIS have been managed through the use of new instruments, such as MicroDTTect in pathogen detection and Bioactive Glass and tantalum cones in humeral bone loss. In the literature to date, no reports have been found that discuss the application in shoulder revisions and infections. The early identification of the microorganisms that cause infection may help improve both treatment strategies and the efficacy of therapy. MicroDTTect proved to be more efficient than swab collection for bacterial identification in orthopedic surgery, thus reducing analysis costs. The increasing number of shoulder arthroplasties is associated with an increase in the number of revisions. In cases of massive metaphyseal humeral bone loss, several techniques have been described; no reports have been reported regarding tantalum in humeral bone loss management. In some cases the tantalum cones required adaptation for femoral diaphysis in the augmentation of the humerus metaphysis and bone loss management improvement. Obtaining stable osseointegration of prosthetic implants is one of the greatest issues in orthopedic surgery, and even more crucial in revisions. Bioactive glasses demonstrated good regenerative and osseointegration properties, and an excellent candidate as a bone graft, scaffold and antibiotics deliverer. The Bioactive glasses were used to increase prosthesis-bone interface stability and fill bone defects in PJIS revision surgeries, contributing to the prevention of re-infection. Longer-term follow-up will be necessary to determine if construction durability is improved in the long term.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited