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Article

Dynamic Changes of Inhibitory Killer-Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors on NK Cells after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: An Initial Study

1
Department of Haematology and Oncology, University Hospital Pilsen, 304 60 Pilsen, Czech Republic
2
Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, 301 66 Pilsen, Czech Republic
3
NTIS, Faculty of Applied Science, University of West Bohemia, 301 00 Pilsen, Czech Republic
4
Laboratory of Tumor Biology and Immunotherapy, Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, 323 00 Pilsen, Czech Republic
5
Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3502; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113502
Received: 29 September 2020 / Revised: 27 October 2020 / Accepted: 28 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Outcomes of Stem Cell Transplants in Cancer Treatment)
Killer-immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are critical natural killer (NK) cell regulators. The expression of KIRs is a dynamic process influenced by many factors. Their ligands—HLA(Human Leukocyte Antigen) class I molecules—are expressed on all nucleated cells that keep NK cells under control. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), NK cells play an essential role in relapse protection. In the presented pilot study, we characterized the dynamic expression of inhibitory KIRS (iKIRs), which protect cells against untoward lysis, in donors and patients during the first three months after HSCT using flow cytometry. The expression of all iKIRs was highly variable and sometimes correlated with patients’ clinical presentation and therapy regiment. Cyclophosphamide (Cy) in the graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prevention protocol downregulated KIR2DL1 to just 25% of the original donor value, and the FEAM (Fludarabine + Etoposid + Ara-C + Melphalan) conditioning protocol reduced KIR2DL3. In lymphoid neoplasms, there was a slightly increased KIR2DL3 expression compared to myeloid malignancies. Additionally, we showed that the ex vivo activation of NK cells did not alter the level of iKIRs. Our study shows the influence of pre- and post-transplantation protocols on iKIR expression on the surface of NK cells and the importance of monitoring their cell surface. View Full-Text
Keywords: KIRs; NK cells; HSCT KIRs; NK cells; HSCT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dekojová, T.; Houdová, L.; Fatka, J.; Pitule, P.; Ostašov, P.; Caputo, V.S.; Gmucová, H.; Lysák, D.; Jindra, P.; Holubová, M. Dynamic Changes of Inhibitory Killer-Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors on NK Cells after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: An Initial Study. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3502. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113502

AMA Style

Dekojová T, Houdová L, Fatka J, Pitule P, Ostašov P, Caputo VS, Gmucová H, Lysák D, Jindra P, Holubová M. Dynamic Changes of Inhibitory Killer-Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors on NK Cells after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: An Initial Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(11):3502. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113502

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dekojová, Tereza, Lucie Houdová, Jiří Fatka, Pavel Pitule, Pavel Ostašov, Valentina S. Caputo, Hana Gmucová, Daniel Lysák, Pavel Jindra, and Monika Holubová. 2020. "Dynamic Changes of Inhibitory Killer-Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors on NK Cells after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: An Initial Study" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 11: 3502. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113502

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