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Presbycusis: An Update on Cochlear Mechanisms and Therapies

by Jing Wang 1,2,* and Jean-Luc Puel 1,2,*
1
INSERM U051, Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier, Hôpital Saint Eloi-Bâtiment INM, 80, rue Augustin Fliche-BP 74103, 34091 Montpellier, France
2
Montpellier Neuroscience Institute, University of Montpellier, 163 rue Auguste Broussonnet, 34090 Montpellier, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010218
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 8 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 14 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapies for Hearing Loss)
Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), also referred to as presbycusis, is the most common sensory impairment seen in the elderly. As our cochlea, the peripheral organ of hearing, ages, we tend to experience a decline in hearing and are at greater risk of cochlear sensory-neural cell degeneration and exacerbated age-related hearing impairments, e.g., gradual hearing loss, deterioration in speech comprehension (especially in noisy environments), difficulty in the localization sound sources, and ringing sensations in the ears. However, the aging process does not affect people uniformly; nor, in fact, does the aging process appear to be uniform even within an individual. Here, we outline recent research into chronological cochlear age in healthy people, and exacerbated hearing impairments during aging due to both extrinsic factors including noise and ototoxic medication, and intrinsic factors such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors, and aging. We review our current understanding of molecular pathways mediating ARHL and discuss recent discoveries in experimental hearing restoration and future prospects. View Full-Text
Keywords: age-related hearing loss; presbycusis; causal factors; mechanisms; therapies age-related hearing loss; presbycusis; causal factors; mechanisms; therapies
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Wang, J.; Puel, J.-L. Presbycusis: An Update on Cochlear Mechanisms and Therapies. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 218.

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