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Open AccessArticle

Circulating Biomarkers of Cell Adhesion Predict Clinical Outcome in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

1
Erasmus MC, 3000CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
2
Olink Proteomics, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden
3
Northwest Clinics, 1815JD Alkmaar, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010195 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 November 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomarkers for Heart Disease)
Cardiovascular inflammation and vascular endothelial dysfunction are involved in chronic heart failure (CHF), and cellular adhesion molecules are considered to play a key role in these mechanisms. We evaluated temporal patterns of 12 blood biomarkers of cell adhesion in patients with CHF. In 263 ambulant patients, serial, tri-monthly blood samples were collected during a median follow-up of 2.2 (1.4–2.5) years. The primary endpoint (PE) was a composite of cardiovascular mortality, HF hospitalization, heart transplantation and implantation of a left ventricular assist device and was reached in 70 patients. We selected the baseline blood samples in all patients, the two samples closest to a PE, or, for event-free patients, the last sample available. In these 567 samples, associations between biomarkers and PE were investigated by joint modelling. The median age was 68 (59–76) years, with 72% men and 74% New York Heart Association class I–II. Repeatedly measured levels of Complement component C1q receptor (C1qR), Cadherin 5 (CDH5), Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1), Ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EPHB4), Intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2) and Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) were independently associated with the PE. Their rates of change also predicted clinical outcome. Level of CHI3L1 was numerically the strongest predictor with a hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) of 2.27 (1.66–3.16) per SD difference in level, followed by JAM-A (2.10, 1.42–3.23) and C1qR (1.90, 1.36–2.72), adjusted for clinical characteristics. In conclusion, temporal patterns of C1qR, CDH5, CHI3L1, EPHB4, ICAM2 and JAM-A are strongly and independently associated with clinical outcome in CHF patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarkers; cell adhesion molecule; heart failure; repeated measurements biomarkers; cell adhesion molecule; heart failure; repeated measurements
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Bouwens, E.; van den Berg, V.J.; Akkerhuis, K.M.; Baart, S.J.; Caliskan, K.; Brugts, J.J.; Mouthaan, H.; van Ramshorst, J.; Germans, T.; Umans, V.A.W.M.; Boersma, E.; Kardys, I. Circulating Biomarkers of Cell Adhesion Predict Clinical Outcome in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 195.

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