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Open AccessArticle

An In Vitro Study of Osteoblast Response on Fused-Filament Fabrication 3D Printed PEEK for Dental and Cranio-Maxillofacial Implants

1
Section Medical Materials Science and Technology, University Hospital Tübingen, Osianderstr. 2–8, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany
2
Medical Additive Manufacturing Research Group, Hightech Research Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, CH-4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
3
Department of Oral and Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Basel, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(6), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060771
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implant Dentistry—Trends, Challenges and Innovations)
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a prime candidate to replace metallic implants and prostheses in orthopedic, spine and cranio-maxillofacial surgeries. Fused-filament fabrication (FFF) is an economical and efficient three-dimensional (3D) printing method to fabricate PEEK implants. However, studies pertaining to the bioactivity of FFF 3D printed PEEK are still lacking. In this study, FFF 3D printed PEEK samples were fabricated and modified with polishing and grit-blasting (three alumina sizes: 50, 120, and 250 µm) to achieve varying levels of surface roughness. In vitro cellular response of a human osteosarcoma cell line (SAOS-2 osteoblasts, cell adhesion, metabolic activity, and proliferation) on different sample surfaces of untreated, polished, and grit-blasted PEEK were evaluated. The results revealed that the initial cell adhesion on different sample surfaces was similar. However, after 5 days the untreated FFF 3D printed PEEK surfaces exhibited a significant increase in cell metabolic activity and proliferation with a higher density of osteoblasts compared with the polished and grit-blasted groups (p < 0.05). Therefore, untreated FFF 3D printed PEEK with high surface roughness and optimal printing structures might have great potential as an appropriate alloplastic biomaterial for reconstructive cranio-maxillofacial surgeries. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyetheretherketone; dental and cranio-maxillofacial implants; prostheses; fused-filament fabrication; in vitro study; surface modification and characterization; cell adhesion; cell metabolic activity; cell proliferation polyetheretherketone; dental and cranio-maxillofacial implants; prostheses; fused-filament fabrication; in vitro study; surface modification and characterization; cell adhesion; cell metabolic activity; cell proliferation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, X.; Sharma, N.; Xu, Z.; Scheideler, L.; Geis-Gerstorfer, J.; Rupp, F.; Thieringer, F.M.; Spintzyk, S. An In Vitro Study of Osteoblast Response on Fused-Filament Fabrication 3D Printed PEEK for Dental and Cranio-Maxillofacial Implants. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 771.

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