Implant Fixation and Risk of Prosthetic Joint Infection Following Primary Total Hip Replacement: Meta-Analysis of Observational Cohort and Randomised Intervention Studies
National Institute for Health Research Bristol Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust and University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK
Translational Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, Musculoskeletal Research Unit, University of Bristol, Learning & Research Building (Level 1), Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050722
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 11 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI), although uncommon, is a dreaded and devastating complication of total hip replacement (THR). Whether implant-related factors, such as the fixation method, influences the risk of PJI following THR is contentious. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the body of evidence linking fixation methods (cemented, uncemented, hybrid, or reverse hybrid) with the risk of PJI following primary THR. Observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing fixation methods, and reporting PJI incidence following THR, were identified through MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and reference lists of relevant studies up to 24 April 2019. Summary measures were relative risks (RRs) (95% confidence intervals, CIs). We identified 22 eligible articles (based on 11 distinct observational cohort studies comprising 2,260,428 THRs and 4 RCTs comprising 945 THRs). In pooled analyses of observational studies, all cemented fixations (plain and antibiotic combined), plain cemented fixations, hybrid fixations, and reverse hybrid fixations were each associated with an increased overall PJI risk when compared with uncemented fixations: 1.10 (95% CI: 1.04–1.17), 1.50 (95% CI: 1.27–1.77), 1.49 (95% CI: 1.36–1.64), and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.14–1.95), respectively. However, in the first six months, uncemented fixations were associated with increased PJI risk when compared to all cemented fixations. Compared to antibiotic-loaded cemented fixations, plain cemented fixations were associated with an increased PJI risk (1.52; 95% CI: 1.36–1.70). One RCT showed an increased PJI risk comparing plain cemented fixations with antibiotic-loaded cemented fixations. Uncemented and antibiotic-loaded cemented fixations remain options for the prevention of PJI in primary THR.