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Open AccessArticle

Characteristics of Individuals with Dry Eye Symptoms without Clinical Diagnosis: Analysis of a Web-Based Survey

1
Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8566, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050721
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dry Eye Syndrome: New Insights on Epidemiology and Management)
Currently, the available treatment for dry eye disease (DED) varies. The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of undiagnosed DED and patient-based self-care management for DED based on a web-based survey performed for Tear’s Day in Japan; 1030 participants (301 women) responded; 155 participants (72 women) had a clinical diagnosis of DED. We defined undiagnosed DED (n = 116; 54 women) as those with DED symptoms, as evaluated by a frequently used questionnaire despite not having a clinical diagnosis. A multivariate adjusted model indicated that younger age (odds ratio (OR), 0.97 for each one-year decrease; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.95–0.99), female sex (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.28–3.50), and prolonged visual display terminal usage (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04–1.21) were risk factors for undiagnosed DED. To investigate the efficacy of self-care management for DED, a sub-analysis was conducted. The number of self-care methods used was significantly higher among women than men. For undiagnosed DED, those with less than three self-care methods had a significantly worse Dry Eye-related Quality-of-Life Score compared with those with diagnosed DED. This study revealed risk factors for undiagnosed DED; individuals with those risk factors need to be clinically assessed and should not rely solely on self-care. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry eye disease; undiagnosed dry eye disease; risk factor; self-care dry eye disease; undiagnosed dry eye disease; risk factor; self-care
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yamanishi, R.; Uchino, M.; Kawashima, M.; Uchino, Y.; Yokoi, N.; Tsubota, K. Characteristics of Individuals with Dry Eye Symptoms without Clinical Diagnosis: Analysis of a Web-Based Survey. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 721. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050721

AMA Style

Yamanishi R, Uchino M, Kawashima M, Uchino Y, Yokoi N, Tsubota K. Characteristics of Individuals with Dry Eye Symptoms without Clinical Diagnosis: Analysis of a Web-Based Survey. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(5):721. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050721

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yamanishi, Ryutaro; Uchino, Miki; Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Yuichi; Yokoi, Norihiko; Tsubota, Kazuo. 2019. "Characteristics of Individuals with Dry Eye Symptoms without Clinical Diagnosis: Analysis of a Web-Based Survey" J. Clin. Med. 8, no. 5: 721. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050721

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