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Immuno-Imaging to Predict Treatment Response in Infection, Inflammation and Oncology

Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and of Translational Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 Groningen, The Netherlands
Nuclear Medicine Department, Clinica Colsanitas, Bogotà 111121, Colombia
Nuclear Medicine Unit, Oncology and High Technology Department, S. Maria Nuova Hospital, AUSL-IRCCS of Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 681;
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Immunology)
PDF [2303 KB, uploaded 14 May 2019]


Background: Molecular nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role for diagnosis in a preclinical phase, in genetically susceptible patients, for radio-guided surgery, for disease relapse evaluation, and for therapy decision-making and follow-up. This is possible thanks to the development of new radiopharmaceuticals to target specific biomarkers of infection, inflammation and tumour immunology. Methods: In this review, we describe the use of specific radiopharmaceuticals for infectious and inflammatory diseases with the aim of fast and accurate diagnosis and treatment follow-up. Furthermore, we focus on specific oncological indications with an emphasis on tumour immunology and visualizing the tumour environment. Results: Molecular nuclear medicine imaging techniques get a foothold in the diagnosis of a variety of infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as bacterial and fungal infections, rheumatoid arthritis, and large vessel vasculitis, but also for treatment response in cancer immunotherapy. Conclusion: Several specific radiopharmaceuticals can be used to improve diagnosis and staging, but also for therapy decision-making and follow-up in infectious, inflammatory and oncological diseases where immune cells are involved. The identification of these cell subpopulations by nuclear medicine techniques would provide personalized medicine for these patients, avoiding side effects and improving therapeutic approaches.
Keywords: infection; inflammation; tumour immunology; therapy follow-up; personalised medicine; tumour microenvironment infection; inflammation; tumour immunology; therapy follow-up; personalised medicine; tumour microenvironment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Signore, A.; Lauri, C.; Auletta, S.; Anzola, K.; Galli, F.; Casali, M.; Versari, A.; Glaudemans, A.W. Immuno-Imaging to Predict Treatment Response in Infection, Inflammation and Oncology. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 681.

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