Next Article in Journal
Control of Invasion by Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Programs during Metastasis
Previous Article in Journal
Differences in Hyperactivity and Inattention between Adolescents Participating and Non-Participating in A National Polish After-School Athletics Program
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Identifying Three-Dimensional Facial Fluctuating Asymmetry in Normal Pediatric Individuals: A Panel Assessment Outcome Study of Clinicians and Observers

1
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
2
Clinical Trial Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
4
Analytical Imaging and Modeling Center, Children’s Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75207, USA
5
Department of Plastic Surgery, UT Southwestern, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050648
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Otolaryngology)
  |  
PDF [808 KB, uploaded 10 May 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

This study measured three-dimensional facial fluctuating asymmetry in 600 normal and healthy Taiwanese individuals (6 to 12 years old) and assessed the perceptions of increasing levels of facial fluctuating asymmetric severity by using a panel composed of 20 clinicians (surgical professionals), as well as 20 adult and 40 pre-adolescent observers. On average, this normal cohort presented a facial fluctuating asymmetry of 0.96 ± 0.52 mm, with 0.52 ± 0.05, 0.67 ± 0.09, 1.01 ± 0.10, and 1.71 ± 0.36 mm for levels I, II, III, and IV of severity, respectively. For all categories of raters, significant differences in the average symmetry–asymmetry scale values were observed, with level I < level II < level III = level IV (all p < 0.01, except for level III vs. IV comparisons with p > 0.05). For level I, pre-adolescent observers presented a significantly (p < 0.05) higher symmetry–asymmetry scale value than adult observers, with no significant (all p > 0.05) differences for other comparisons. For overall facial asymmetry and levels II, III, and IV, no significant (all p > 0.05) differences were observed. This study reveals that the normal pediatric face is asymmetric and the panel assessment of facial fluctuating asymmetry was influenced by the level of severity and the category of raters and contributes to the literature by revealing that pre-adolescent raters present a similar or higher perception of facial asymmetry than adult raters. View Full-Text
Keywords: normal children; facial asymmetry; clinicians; observers; panel assessment; three-dimensional images normal children; facial asymmetry; clinicians; observers; panel assessment; three-dimensional images
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary materials

  • Supplementary File 1:

    ZIP-Document (ZIP, 3547 KB)

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: None
    Link: http://None
    Description: Video 1
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chou, P.-Y.; Denadai, R.; Chen, S.-H.; Tseng, H.-J.; Hsu, C.-K.; Wang, S.-W.; Hallac, R.; Chen, C.-H.; Kane, A.A.; Lo, L.-J. Identifying Three-Dimensional Facial Fluctuating Asymmetry in Normal Pediatric Individuals: A Panel Assessment Outcome Study of Clinicians and Observers. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 648.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top