Next Article in Journal
Effects of Caloric Restriction with Protein Supplementation on Plasma Protein Profiles in Middle-Aged Women with Metabolic Syndrome—A Preliminary Open Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Baroreceptor Sensitivity Predicts Functional Outcome and Complications after Acute Ischemic Stroke
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of a 30-Day Slow-Paced Breathing Intervention Compared to Social Media Use on Subjective Sleep Quality and Cardiac Vagal Activity
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020194

Effects of a Short-Term Cycling Interval Session and Active Recovery on Non-Linear Dynamics of Cardiac Autonomic Activity in Endurance Trained Cyclists

1
Department of Performance, Neuroscience, Therapy and Health, MSH Medical School Hamburg, University of Applied Sciences and Medical University, 20457 Hamburg, Germany
2
Center for Sports and Physical Education, Julius Maximilians University of Wuerzburg, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
3
Institute of Sports Science, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, 06108 Halle (Saale), Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autonomic Nervous System: From Bench to Bedside)
Full-Text   |   PDF [954 KB, uploaded 12 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

Measurement of the non-linear dynamics of physiologic variability in a heart rate time series (HRV) provides new opportunities to monitor cardiac autonomic activity during exercise and recovery periods. Using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) technique to assess correlation properties, the present study examines the influence of exercise intensity and recovery on total variability and complexity in the non-linear dynamics of HRV. Sixteen well-trained cyclists performed interval sessions with active recovery periods. During exercise, heart rate (HR) and beat-to-beat (RR)-intervals were recorded continuously. HRV time domain measurements and fractal correlation properties were analyzed using the short-term scaling exponent alpha1 of DFA. Lactate (La) levels and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were also recorded at regular time intervals. HR, La, and RPE showed increased values during the interval blocks (p < 0.05). In contrast, meanRR and DFA-alpha1 showed decreased values during the interval blocks (p < 0.05). Also, DFA-alpha1 increased to the level in the warm-up periods during active recovery (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged until the end of active recovery (p = 1.000). The present data verify a decrease in the overall variability, as well as a reduction in the complexity of the RR-interval-fluctuations, owing to increased organismic demands. The acute increase in DFA-alpha1 following intensity-based training stimuli in active recovery may be interpreted as a systematic reorganization of the organism with increased correlation properties in cardiac autonomic activity in endurance trained cyclists. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomic nervous system; HRV; Detrended Fluctuation Analysis; DFA; interval exercise; active recovery autonomic nervous system; HRV; Detrended Fluctuation Analysis; DFA; interval exercise; active recovery
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gronwald, T.; Hoos, O.; Hottenrott, K. Effects of a Short-Term Cycling Interval Session and Active Recovery on Non-Linear Dynamics of Cardiac Autonomic Activity in Endurance Trained Cyclists. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 194.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top