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J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020159

Characterization of SIRT1/DNMTs Functions and LINE-1 Methylation in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

1
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 January 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
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Abstract

Previous studies proposed the application of DNA methylation signatures as clinical biomarkers of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the characterization of Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) methylation levels—a surrogate marker of global DNA methylation—in AMD patients has not been investigated so far. In the present study, we first characterized DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) functions in blood samples of 40 AMD patients and 10 age- and sex-matched controls. Then, we evaluated whether changes in DNMTs functions were associated with different LINE-1 methylation levels in leukocyte DNA. We demonstrated that total DNMTs activity was 48% higher in AMD patients than in controls (p = 0.005). AMD patients also exhibited up-regulation of DNMT1 and DNMT3B expression (FC = 2.6; p = 0.003 and FC = 2.4; p = 0.018, respectively). In line with increased DNMTs functions, the LINE-1 methylation level was higher in AMD patients than in controls (mean = 69.10%; SE = 0.68 vs. mean = 65.73%; SE = 0.59; p = 0.020). All p-values were adjusted by Bonferroni correction. In AMD patients, LINE-1 methylation level was positively associated with total DNMTs activity (r = 0.694; p < 0.001), DNMT1 (r = 0.579; p < 0.001), and DNMT3B (r = 0.521; p = 0.001) expression. Our results encourage further large-size prospective research to understand the relationship between LINE-1 methylation and AMD aetiology, and its usefulness in the clinical setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinal degeneration; AMD; DNA methylation; DNMT; SIRT1; LINE-1 retinal degeneration; AMD; DNA methylation; DNMT; SIRT1; LINE-1
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Maugeri, A.; Barchitta, M.; Fallico, M.; Castellino, N.; Reibaldi, M.; Agodi, A. Characterization of SIRT1/DNMTs Functions and LINE-1 Methylation in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 159.

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