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Open AccessArticle

The Innate Immune Cell Profile of the Cornea Predicts the Onset of Ocular Surface Inflammatory Disorders

1
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
2
Biomaterials Group, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
3
La Jolla Institute for Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
4
Chair of Experimental Bioinformatics, Technical University of Munich (TUM), 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany
5
Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU), 82152 München, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(12), 2110; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8122110
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
Ocular surface inflammatory disorder (OSID) is a spectrum of disorders that have features of several etiologies whilst displaying similar phenotypic signs of ocular inflammation. They are complicated disorders with underlying mechanisms related to several autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjögren’s syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Current literature shows the involvement of both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system in ocular surface inflammation. The ocular surface contains distinct components of the immune system in the conjunctiva and the cornea. The normal conjunctiva epithelium and sub-epithelial stroma contains resident immune cells, such as T cells, B cells (adaptive), dendritic cells, and macrophages (innate). The relative sterile environment of the cornea is achieved by the tolerogenic properties of dendritic cells in the conjunctiva, the presence of regulatory lymphocytes, and the existence of soluble immunosuppressive factors, such as the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and macrophage migration inhibitory factors. With the presence of both innate and adaptive immune system components, it is intriguing to investigate the most important leukocyte population in the ocular surface, which is involved in immune surveillance. Our meta-analysis investigates into this with a focus on both infectious (contact lens wear, corneal graft rejection, Cytomegalovirus, keratitis, scleritis, ocular surgery) and non-infectious (dry eye disease, glaucoma, graft-vs-host disease, Sjögren’s syndrome) situations. We have found the predominance of dendritic cells in ocular surface diseases, along with the Th-related cytokines. Our goal is to improve the knowledge of immune cells in OSID and to open new dimensions in the field. The purpose of this study is not to limit ourselves in the ocular system, but to investigate the importance of dendritic cells in the disorders of other mucosal organs (e.g., lungs, gut, uterus). Holistically, we want to investigate if this is a common trend in the initiation of any disease related to the mucosal organs and find a unified therapeutic approach. In addition, we want to show the power of computational approaches to foster a collaboration between computational and biological science. View Full-Text
Keywords: ocular surface disease; autoimmune diseases; dendritic cells; inflammation; conjunctiva; lymphocytes ocular surface disease; autoimmune diseases; dendritic cells; inflammation; conjunctiva; lymphocytes
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Palomar, A.P.; Montolío, A.; Cegoñino, J.; Dhanda, S.K.; Lio, C.T.; Bose, T. The Innate Immune Cell Profile of the Cornea Predicts the Onset of Ocular Surface Inflammatory Disorders. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 2110.

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