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Open AccessArticle

Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea before and after Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: The ADIPOSA Study

1
Sleep and Health Promotion Laboratory, Mind, Brain and Behaviour Research Centre (CIMCYC), University of Granada, 18011 Granada, Spain
2
EFFECTS-262 Research group, Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
3
PROmoting FITness and Health through physical activity research group (PROFITH), Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
4
Unidad de Trastornos Respiratorios del Sueño, Servicio de Neumología, “Virgen de las Nieves” University Hospital, 18014 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(12), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8122099
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 19 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 1 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Pulmonology)
The prevalence and treatment response of depression and anxiety symptoms in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), although widely addressed in research and clinical settings, still remain unclear due to overlapping symptoms. The ADIPOSA study sought to elucidate the presence of non-overlapping symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with moderate to severe OSA before and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. Forty-eight adults aged 18–80 (68.75% men) with moderate to severe OSA were enrolled in this twelve-week longitudinal single-arm trial and completed a full-night ambulatory sleep diagnostic test and an assessment of cognitive-affective depression and anxiety symptoms using the Beck-Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS), the State-Trait Depression Inventory (IDER) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). We found no cognitive-affective depression or anxiety symptoms of clinical relevance at baseline. The amelioration of depression and anxiety symptoms after CPAP use was only statistically significant when considering anxiety-trait (p < 0.01; d = 0.296) and euthymia (p < 0.05; d = 0.402), the distinctive component of depression. Although dysthymia or high negative affect remained unchanged, CPAP may be effective at reducing the lack of positive affect, a well-established health-protective factor. However, not until depression and anxiety disorders related to OSA are accurately measured in clinical and research settings will it be possible to obtain robust conclusions on the occurrence and amelioration of these symptoms after treatment.
Keywords: obstructive sleep apnoea; depression; anxiety; continuous positive airway pressure; OSA; CPAP; dysthymia; euthymia; negative affect; positive affect obstructive sleep apnoea; depression; anxiety; continuous positive airway pressure; OSA; CPAP; dysthymia; euthymia; negative affect; positive affect
MDPI and ACS Style

Carneiro-Barrera, A.; Amaro-Gahete, F.J.; Sáez-Roca, G.; Martín-Carrasco, C.; Ruiz, J.R.; Buela-Casal, G. Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea before and after Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: The ADIPOSA Study. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 2099.

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