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Open AccessArticle

Clinical Validation of Innovative Optical-Sensor-Based, Low-Cost, Rapid Diagnostic Test to Reduce Antimicrobial Resistance

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, Telangana 500078, India
2
Department of Microbiology, Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana 500003, India
3
All Indian Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342005, India
4
Center for Prostate Disease Research, Department of Surgery, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Bethesda, MD 20817, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Suman Kapur and Manish Gehani contributed equally to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(12), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8122098
Received: 18 October 2019 / Revised: 20 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 1 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Medicine for Healthcare and Sustainability)
The antibiotic susceptibility test determines the most effective antibiotic treatment for bacterial infection. Antimicrobial stewardship is advocated for the rational use of antibiotics to preserve their efficacy in the long term and provide empirical therapy for disease management. Therefore, rapid diagnostic tests can play a pivotal role in efficient and timely treatment. Here, we developed a novel, rapid, affordable, and portable platform for detecting uropathogens and reporting antibiogram to clinicians in just 4 h. This technology replicates the basic tenets of clinical microbiology including bacterial growth in indigenously formulated medium, and measurement of inhibition of bacterial growth in presence of antibiotic/s. Detection is based on chromogenic endpoints using optical sensors and is analyzed by a lab-developed algorithm, which reports antibiotic sensitivity to the antibiotics panel tested. To assess its diagnostic accuracy, a prospective clinical validation study was conducted in two tertiary-care Indian hospitals. Urine samples from 1986 participants were processed by both novel/index test and conventional Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion method. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay was 92.5% and 82%, respectively (p < 0.0005). This novel technology will promote evidence-based prescription of antibiotics and reduce the burden of increasing resistance by providing rapid and precise diagnosis in shortest possible time.
Keywords: urinary tract infection; rapid culture; antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST), evidence-based prescription; antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance (AMR), rapid diagnostics urinary tract infection; rapid culture; antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST), evidence-based prescription; antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance (AMR), rapid diagnostics
MDPI and ACS Style

Kapur, S.; Gehani, M.; Kammili, N.; Bhardwaj, P.; Nag, V.; Devara, S.M.; Sharad, S. Clinical Validation of Innovative Optical-Sensor-Based, Low-Cost, Rapid Diagnostic Test to Reduce Antimicrobial Resistance. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 2098.

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