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Open AccessArticle

Tissue Sodium Content and Arterial Hypertension in Obese Adolescents

1
Institute for Computational and Imaging Science in Cardiovascular Medicine, Charité – Universitätsmedizin 13353 Berlin, Germany
2
Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Department of Congenital Heart Disease, 13353 Berlin, Germany
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DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Berlin, 10785 Berlin, Germany
4
Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin, Germany
5
Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), 10178 Berlin, Germany
6
Experimental and Clinical Research Center, a joint cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin, Germany
7
Department of Paediatrics, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 13353 Berlin, Germany
8
Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, OX3 9DU Oxford, UK
9
Institute of Radiology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(12), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8122036
Received: 25 September 2019 / Revised: 8 November 2019 / Accepted: 15 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology & Metabolism)
Early-onset obesity is known to culminate in type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension and subsequent cardiovascular disease. The role of sodium (Na+) homeostasis in this process is incompletely understood, yet correlations between Na+ accumulation and hypertension have been observed in adults. We aimed to investigate these associations in adolescents. A cohort of 32 adolescents (13–17 years), comprising 20 obese patients, of whom 11 were hypertensive, as well as 12 age-matched controls, underwent 23Na-MRI of the left lower leg with a standard clinical 3T scanner. Median triceps surae muscle Na+ content in hypertensive obese (11.95 mmol/L [interquartile range 11.62–13.66]) was significantly lower than in normotensive obese (13.63 mmol/L [12.97–17.64]; p = 0.043) or controls (15.37 mmol/L [14.12–16.08]; p = 0.012). No significant differences were found between normotensive obese and controls. Skin Na+ content in hypertensive obese (13.33 mmol/L [11.53–14.22] did not differ to normotensive obese (14.12 mmol/L [13.15–15.83]) or controls (11.48 mmol/L [10.48–12.80]), whereas normotensive obese had higher values compared to controls (p = 0.004). Arterial hypertension in obese adolescents is associated with low muscle Na+ content. These findings suggest an early dysregulation of Na+ homeostasis in cardiometabolic disease. Further research is needed to determine whether this association is causal and how it evolves in the transition to adulthood.
Keywords: obesity, sodium, hypertension, adolescents, MRI, MR-spectroscopy obesity, sodium, hypertension, adolescents, MRI, MR-spectroscopy
MDPI and ACS Style

Roth, S.; Markó, L.; Birukov, A.; Hennemuth, A.; Kühnen, P.; Jones, A.; Ghorbani, N.; Linz, P.; Müller, D.N.; Wiegand, S.; Berger, F.; Kuehne, T.; Kelm, M. Tissue Sodium Content and Arterial Hypertension in Obese Adolescents. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 2036.

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