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Open AccessReview

Management of Dehydration in Patients Suffering Swallowing Difficulties

1
Department for Diabetes, Endocrinology, Nutritional Medicine and Metabolism, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 15, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
2
The New York Academy of Sciences, 250 Greenwich Sweet, 40th floor, New York, NY 10007, USA
3
Cereneo Schweiz AG, Center for Neurology and Rehabilitation, Seestrasse 18, 6354 Vitznau, Switzerland
4
AI in Health and Nutrition Laboratory, ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 50, 3008 Bern, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111923
Received: 24 September 2019 / Revised: 28 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 8 November 2019
Swallowing difficulties, also called dysphagia, can have various causes and may occur at many points in the swallowing process. The treatment and rehabilitation of dysphagia represent a major interdisciplinary and multiprofessional challenge. In dysphagic patients, dehydration is frequent and often accelerated as a result of limited fluid intake. This condition results from loss of water from the intracellular space, disturbing the normal levels of electrolytes and fluid interfering with metabolic processes and body functions. Dehydration is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Dysphagic patients at risk of dehydration thus require close monitoring of their hydration state, and existing imbalances should be addressed quickly. This review gives an overview on dehydration, as well as its pathophysiology, risk factors, and clinical signs/symptoms in general. Available management strategies of dehydration are presented for oral, enteral, and parenteral fluid replacement.
Keywords: dehydration; dysphagia; fluid intake; water dehydration; dysphagia; fluid intake; water
MDPI and ACS Style

Reber, E.; Gomes, F.; Dähn, I.A.; Vasiloglou, M.F.; Stanga, Z. Management of Dehydration in Patients Suffering Swallowing Difficulties. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1923.

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