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Open AccessArticle

The Impact of Neighbourhood Deprivation on Embryonic Growth Trajectories: Rotterdam Periconception Cohort

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam 3015 GD, The Netherlands
2
Department of Biostatistics, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam 3015 GD, The Netherlands
3
Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam 3015 GD, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111913 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 8 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
Background: Neighbourhood deprivation is a risk factor for impaired health and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We investigated whether living in a deprived neighbourhood is associated with embryonic growth. Methods: From the Predict cohort, we studied 566 women who underwent repeated first trimester ultrasound examinations. Crown rump length (CRL; n = 1707) and embryonic volume (EV; n = 1462) were measured using three-dimensional techniques. Neighbourhood deprivation was assessed using the neighbourhood status scores (NSS) of the Dutch Social Cultural Planning office. A high NSS represents a non-deprived neighbourhood. Associations between the NSS and embryonic growth were investigated using linear mixed models. Adjustment was performed for individual-level factors: maternal age, geographic origin, educational level, BMI, folic acid supplement use, fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol use and smoking habits. Results: The NSS was negatively associated with embryonic growth: a higher score (a less deprived neighbourhood) was associated with a smaller CRL and EV; adjusted β: −0.025 (95% CI −0.046, −0.003) and adjusted β: −0.015 (95% CI −0.026, −0.003). At 11 weeks of pregnancy, we observed a 0.55 cm3 smaller EV (7.65 cm3 vs. 7.10 cm3) and 1.08 mm smaller CRL (43.14 mm vs. 42.06 mm) in the highest compared to the lowest category. Conclusion: In deprived neighbourhoods, embryos are larger than in non-deprived neighbourhoods. View Full-Text
Keywords: social class; pregnancy; geographic origin; residence characteristics; social determinants of health social class; pregnancy; geographic origin; residence characteristics; social determinants of health
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Gootjes, D.V.; Koster, M.P.H.; Willemsen, S.P.; Koning, A.H.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. The Impact of Neighbourhood Deprivation on Embryonic Growth Trajectories: Rotterdam Periconception Cohort. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1913.

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