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Open AccessArticle

Associations between Plasma Biomarkers and Cognition in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

1
Department of Neurology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
2
Department of Psychiatry, Beitou Branch, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 112, Taiwan
3
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1893; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111893
Received: 7 October 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 6 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
Brain degeneration in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) results from the accumulation of pathological amyloid- (Aβ) plaques and tau protein tangles, leading to altered plasma levels of biomarkers. However, few studies have investigated the association between plasma biomarkers and cognitive impairment in patients with AD. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated correlations between mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores and levels of plasma biomarkers in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD. Thirteen individuals with normal cognition, 40 patients with aMCI, and 37 patients with AD were enrolled. Immunomagnetic reduction was used to assess the levels of plasma biomarkers, including amyloid A1-40, A1-42, total tau protein (t-Tau), and phosphorylated tau protein (threonine 181, p-Tau181). Our analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between MMSE and both measures of tau, and a trend toward negative correlation between MMSE and A1-42. In a longitudinal study involving three patients with aMCI and two patients with AD, we observed strong negative correlations (r < −0.8) between changes in MMSE scores and plasma levels of t-Tau. Our results suggest that plasma levels of t-Tau and p-Tau181 can be used to assess the severity of cognitive impairment in patients with AD. Furthermore, the results of our preliminary longitudinal study suggest that levels of t-Tau can be used to monitor the progression of cognitive decline in patients with aMCI/AD.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; amnestic mild cognitive impairment; plasma biomarkers; immunomagnetic reduction Alzheimer’s disease; amnestic mild cognitive impairment; plasma biomarkers; immunomagnetic reduction
MDPI and ACS Style

Tsai, C.-L.; Liang, C.-S.; Lee, J.-T.; Su, M.-W.; Lin, C.-C.; Chu, H.-T.; Tsai, C.-K.; Lin, G.-Y.; Lin, Y.-K.; Yang, F.-C. Associations between Plasma Biomarkers and Cognition in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1893.

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