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An Association of Gut Microbiota with Different Phenotypes in Chinese Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

by Hsin-I Chiang 1,†, Jian-Rong Li 2,3,†, Chun-Chi Liu 3,4, Po-Yu Liu 5,6, Hsin-Hua Chen 5,7,8, Yi-Ming Chen 5,7,8, Joung-Liang Lan 9,10,11 and Der-Yuan Chen 10,11,12,*
1
Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
2
Advanced Plant Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
3
Institute of Genomics and Bioinformatics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
4
Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
5
Ph.D. Program in Translational Medicine and Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
6
Division of Infection, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan
7
Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan
8
Faculty of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
9
Rheumatic Diseases Research Laboratory, Rheumatology and Immunology Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
10
Rheumatology and Immunology Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
11
Translational Medicine Laboratory, Rheumatology and Immunology Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
12
School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111770
Received: 14 September 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
We aimed to investigate the association of gut microbiota with disease activity, inflammatory parameters, and auto-antibodies profile in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 138 RA patients and 21 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Fecal samples were collected for bacterial DNA extraction and 16S ribosome (r)RNA sequencing, followed by analyses of gut microbiota composition. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17A were determined by using ELISA. Our results indicated that RA patients had lower diversity index, which reflects both evenness and richness of gut microbiota, compared to HC. The alpha-diversity was lower in anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA)-positive patients than in HC. The phylum Verrucomicrobiae and genus Akkermansia were more abundant in patients compared to HC. There was increased relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae as well as Klebsiella, and less abundance of Bifidobacterium in patients with high levels of TNF-α or IL-17A compared to those who had low levels of these cytokines. In addition, ACPA-positive patients had higher proportions of Blautia, Akkermansia, and Clostridiales than ACPA-negative patients. Gut dysbiosis in RA patients was presented as different microbial composition and its association with inflammatory parameters as well as ACPA seropositivity. These findings support the involvement of gut microbiota in RA pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; gut microbiota; disease activity; proinflammatory cytokines; seropositivity rheumatoid arthritis; gut microbiota; disease activity; proinflammatory cytokines; seropositivity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chiang, H.-I.; Li, J.-R.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, P.-Y.; Chen, H.-H.; Chen, Y.-M.; Lan, J.-L.; Chen, D.-Y. An Association of Gut Microbiota with Different Phenotypes in Chinese Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1770.

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