Next Article in Journal
The Endocrine Function of the Heart: Physiology and Involvements of Natriuretic Peptides and Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases in Heart Failure
Previous Article in Journal
SOX2 Expression Is an Independent Predictor of Oral Cancer Progression
Open AccessArticle

Home-Based Exergaming on Preschoolers’ Energy Expenditure, Cardiovascular Fitness, Body Mass Index and Cognitive Flexibility: A Randomized Controlled Trial

1
School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
2
Department of Applied Human Sciences, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN 55812, USA
3
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, 1571 Campus Delivery, 110 Gifford Building, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
4
School of Public Health, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
5
Hangzhou Kindergarten Teacher College, Zhejiang Normal University, Hangzhou 310012, China
6
School of Physical Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(10), 1745; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101745
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 12 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 21 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
Purpose: The effects of exergaming-based physical activity (PA) interventions on preschoolers’ health outcomes and cognition remain largely unexplored. Therefore, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to discern the effectiveness of a home-based educational exergaming intervention on preschoolers’ energy expenditure, fitness, body mass index, and cognition. Methods: Participants were 32 preschoolers (16 girls; 59.4% Asian; Mage = 4.72, SD = ±0.73) recruited from the Twin Cities area in Minnesota. During baseline testing, we measured preschooler’s daily energy expenditure (EE), cardiovascular fitness, body mass index, and cognitive flexibility using validated instruments. Participants were then randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) the exergaming intervention condition; or (2) control condition. The intervention program requested children participate in home-based educational exergaming using the LeapTV gaming console for at least 30 min/session 5 times/week. The control condition asked children to maintain regular PA patterns without any exergaming gameplay. Each condition lasted 12 weeks. We conducted identical outcome assessments for all children at baseline and post-intervention. Results: Analysis of covariance with repeated measures yielded significant time x group interaction effects for cognitive flexibility, Wilks’ Lambda = 0.81, F(1, 29) = 6.98, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.19, suggesting children in the exergaming group demonstrated significantly greater increases in cognitive flexibility as compared to those in the control group over time. There were no significant differences for time x group changes between the two groups for EE, Wilks’ Lambda = 0.92, F(1, 29) = 2.29, p = 0.14, η2 = 0.08; cardiovascular fitness, Wilks’ Lambda = 0.96, F(1, 29) = 1.07, p = 0.31, η2 = 0.04; and BMI, Wilks’ Lambda = 0.99, F(1, 29) = 0.05, p = 0.82, η2 = 0.01. However, our data did suggest a marginal effect of time for EE, Wilks’ Lambda = 0.89, F(1, 29) = 3.26, p = 0.08, η2 = 0.08, indicating that children’s daily EE increased from baseline to post-intervention. Conclusions: Home-based educational exergaming may positively impact cognitive flexibility in preschoolers. Studies with larger sample sizes in multiple geographic locations are needed, with our study suggesting a longer intervention period might also be warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: active video games; cognitive functions; early childhood; pediatric obesity; physical activity; health promotion active video games; cognitive functions; early childhood; pediatric obesity; physical activity; health promotion
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, Z.; Lee, J.E.; Zeng, N.; Pope, Z.C.; Zhang, Y.; Li, X. Home-Based Exergaming on Preschoolers’ Energy Expenditure, Cardiovascular Fitness, Body Mass Index and Cognitive Flexibility: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1745.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop